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Chemistry, Physiology, Homeostasis, Cell Properties, Review

What is the difference between neural vs. hormonal control -

The nervous system detects body changes and sends nerve impulses to counteract the stress. The endocrine system regulates homeostasis by secreting hormones.

What is the only real difference between neural vs. hormonal control

the manner by which it is delivered.

What is homeostasis?

Maintaining constant internal environment

Positive vs. negative feedback

...

If you were hot, what would be the negative feedback to control body temperature?

Dilation of vessels, sweating

In order to maintain homeostasis you need to have what?

Complete reflex arm, receptors, afferent pathways, integration center

BE ABLE TO PUT THIS IN APPROPRIATE SEQUENCE

...

Can the afferent path and efferent path be both hormonal and neural?

Yes, it can be both.

Which of either afferent path or efferent path carries information toward integration center?

Afferent

GIVE EXAMPLES of glucagon or insulin -

...

If blood sugar is too low, therefore...

glucagon is released

Can hormones be produced by nerve cells?

YES

Can hormones be secreted by endocrine?

YES

Can hormones be used as regulators for organ function?

YES

The vagus nerve uses what type of control?

Uses NEURO control, it releases the neurotransmitter right on the target

Adrenal medulla controls by releases its hormone directly into...

bloodstream

Understand adaptation

...

Can we evolve a bigger lung?

NO but can still acclimate by increasing cell count or hematocrit (carry MORE!) (rose secondarily-making more blood cells in response to low oxygen)

Homeostasis involves biorhythms like?

SLEEP, MENSTRUAL CYCLE

Circadian rhythm regulates SLEEP and responds to the changes of what?

Daylight

Releasing melatonin for the sleep cycle can cause what?

Food, migration pattern and sleep cycle

Do all cells live forever?

NO

Do some cells have short life span?

YES

Which cells have a short life span?

Epithelial cells, which die by autolysis (apoptosis)

Do all cells exhibit mitosis?

NO

Does a heart cell divide with heart attack?

NO

Cells that do not replace themselves are called what?

Amitotic

What determines if you are able to respond to signals?

Having the appropriate specific RECEPTORS, and the more receptors the more sensitive

How do you add more receptors to membrane?

Exocytosis

How do you remove receptors to membrane?

Endocytosis

Where are proteins produced?

RIBOSOMES

Where are proteins packaged?

Endoplasmic reticulum

Where are proteins repackaged?

GOLGI APPARATUS

Where are sterols and lipids made?

In the cytoplasm

Where are sterols and lipids packaged?

GOLGI BODY

What does ER store?

Calcium

If a molecule is polar, it has charged ends, therefore must be ionized

NO (Because they are still sharing electrons, they are COVALENT) You cannot be ionized if you're sharing

If you can join organic molecules by removal of water (dehydration), how do you split molecules?

Hydrolysis, the addition of water (will breaks covalent bonds)

Water and oil don't mix, what are we saying?

polar does NOT dissolve in non-polar and vice-versa

Proteins in cell membrane and phospholipids have portions that are hydrophilic and hydrophobic, therefore they are?

amphipathic

pH measures concentration of hydroxyl ions?

NO, it measures the concentration of hydrogen ions

Do our membranes or cells have the mechanisms to move hydroxyls?

NO, can only move hydrogen

What are organic molecules?

Consist of chains of carbon dioxide

Carbohydrates always have equal numbers of?

Carbon and oxygen (standard formulas for alkanes, alkynes, alkines)

A glucose molecule is a monosaccharide, and so are what other sugars?

fructose, galactose

Sucrose is what type of sugar?

disaccharide, made of glucose and fructose

What are the pentose sugars that are monosacharieds that make up nucleic acid?

ribose and deoxyribose

What 2 monosaccharaides make up lactose?

galactose and glucose

What 2 monosaccharaides make up maltose?

Glucose and glucose

Animals are able to store glucose in polymers of glucose known as?

the polymer (carbohydrate) named glycogen (animal starch)

Plants are able to store chains of alpha glucose in what form?

STARCH, or analose

Chains of beta glucose form what?

Cellulose (can't be digested by humans)

Can humans digest chains of alpha glucose?

YES

What 3 things make nucleic acid?

Phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base

Can we identify the nucleic acid by its phosphate?

NO

Can we identify the nucleic acid by its sugar?

Partially, it can tell us whether it's DNA or RNA

How do we identify the nucleic acid?

By nitrogenous bases

Different nitrogenous base is different in RNA and not in DNA?

URACIL

The major function for plasma membrane is to?

Selectively permeate or regulate what enters and leaves

Why is the plasma membrane referred to fluid mosaic

the fluid is the phospholipid sea layer and the mosaic are the integral proteins serving as channel

What binds cells together and seals them so that molecules can't slip between cells but must pass through?

Tight junctions, because they are seals

Why is granular endoplasmic reticulum granular?

Because it has ribosomes

Why is agranular endoplasmic reticulum agranular?

no ribosomes

Agranular ER is a site to store what?

Stores calcium, and can package lipids

What do you call specialized vacuole that contain powerful hydrolytic enzymes that help break down macromolecules

lysosomes

What do you call the vesicles that have powerful peroxidases, which are meant to neutralize toxins?

PERIXOSOMES

Where is the modification and redistribution center

Golgi apparatus

Cytoskeleton is formed by micro tubes and filaments

YES (IT IS NOT SO FOR HUMAN BONES)

If one cell is able to produce more product than another cell (i.e. more lipid, protein) that must mean that one cell has

when cells different productivity, they have different factory or working plants. They also may have different energy sources (if it makes more protein it has more ribosomes, if it makes more lipids, cell has more ER)

If I am given the codon, can we give anticodon?

YES

If I am giving the DNA triplet, can I give back codon?

YES

What do you call the copying of the DNA message onto the RNA?

TRANSCRIpTION happens in nucleus

The initial DNA message transcribed onto the messenger RNA is larger or smaller than the final?

Larger because it includes nonsense known as introns, which we have to remove

What is transfer RNA transferring?

Amino acids and putting them in the right spots

Where does translation happen?

In the ribosomes (translates into a sequence of amino acids)

Where does transcription happen?

In the nucleus

When transcribed, the final messenger RNA is considerably what?

shorter than the original.

Segments of DNA with a particular trait are called?

GENES

How do genes become cancerous?

They are activated by an environmental trigger

Gene that is altered can cause cancer is called a what?

Oncogene

What factors accelerate diffusion?

...

In diffusion, how are particles moving?

In RANDOM MOVEMENT

To increase net flux of a penetrating solute, what can I do to the concentration of the solute?

Increase concentration, adding heat, but concentration is more favorable because particles collide most often.

Which kind of molecule diffuses more rapidly to the cell membrane?

NONPOLAR because most of membrane is phospholipid therefore nonpolar dissolves non polar because the membrane is lipid.

What factors increase diffusion rate?

More temp, more concentration, more agitation, more surface area, increase solubility

What slows diffusion rate?

Greater distance, greater molecular weight

Permeability of ions across membrane can be affected by the number of channels

TRUE

Permeability of ions across membrane can be affected by the charge on ion

TRUE

Permeability of ions across membrane can be affected by the voltage on the membrane

TRUE

The voltage of membranes is the same in all cells?

NO, varies between cells

Which ions are more abundant in intra and extra- and intra-cellular fluid?

...

Which is the most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid

Chloride

When transport is mediated it is mediated by carrier proteins, is that always active transport?

NO

Can it be characterized by number of carriers available?

YES

Facilitated diffusion requires metabolic ENERGY from the cell

NO, because it is diffusion.

Secondary active transport requires cellular metabolic energy

NO, only primary does

When mediating the transport of something across the membrane, that membrane will be influenced or mediated by the presence of an appropriate binding site

YES, you have to have the right receptor to bind to.

In the sodium-potassium pump, we pump out how many sodiums for potassiums?

3 sodiums out for every 2 potassiums in

Osmosis refers to diffusion of what?

solvent, usually water

In the case of cells and tube (experiment example in lab), diffusion of water across a membrane would be finely balanced by opposing force. What is going to stop the colomose from rising

the weight of the pressure from the other side (opposing pressure)

Which of these solutions and hypo- or hyper- tonic?

Sodium chloride at 150 milliosmoles (MO), Calcium chloride at 100 MO, or Sodium fluoride at 200 MO - Sodium fluoride at 200 MO is HYPERTONIC.

What makes the solution most hypertonic?

the # of osmatically active particles

Exocytosis vs. endocytosis

...

Difference between endocrine vs exocrine

endocrine secretes hormones via ducts, and exocrine secretes hormones via bloodstream.

The diffusion of glucose into/out of cell is usually done by?

Facilitated diffusion, usually facilitated by a simport.

Sodium is independent and can go through what when going in and out of the cell?

uniports or simporters

A protein with at least two binding sites is what?

Allosteric

If I bind to an allosteric binding site, and it prevents you from binding, what kind of INHIBITION is that?

Non-competitive inhibition

When you are competing for same binding site, it is called?

Competitive inhibition

Sum of all catabolic and anabolic processes could be described as what?

Overall metabolism

Will raising temperature increase likelihood of a chemical reaction?

YES

Will increasing concentration increase likelihood of a chemical reaction?

YES

Will Use of a catalyst increase likelihood of a chemical reaction?

YES

Catalysts increase chemical reaction by doing what?

Lowering activation energy, so the reactions go FASTER

When I give a chemical reaction A+B=C, it is called...

composition

If an arrow in an equation goes in both directions, the equation is what?

IT IS Reversible

What favors forward reaction?

Increasing reactant, decreasing product

How can we increase a forward reaction, and exothermic reaction or an endothermic reaction?

...

Which reactions need energy to be added to the system to make it move forward?

Endothermic

To increase forward reaction we need to add more what?

Energy

Which is organic, catalysts or enzymes?

enzymes

Enzymes are catalysts, but catalysts are not enzymes

NOT ALWAYS

Are enzymes organic?

YES, and are NOT substrates or part of the reaction

Are co-enzymes organic?

YES, and CAN be substrates and cofactors

Cofactors are usually vitamins?

NO, they are metals, etc.

Are co-enzymes usually vitamins?

YES

Can a cofactor alter the combination of an enzyme?

YES

Can a cofactor alter binding site of coenzyme?

YES, and thereby enhance it

If you have a series of chemical reactions, which one would be the rate-limiting step?

Slowest one is the rate of limiting step

The body's favorite energy currency is

creating phosphate (ATP)

Most ATP is generated by

Oxidated phosphorylation which occurs in MITOCHONDRIA

Glycolysis generates a net profit of how many ATP?

2, therefore it is not preferred energy currency of cells.

Glycolysis does not require oxygen nor

is affected by oxygen

What is the end product of glycolysis?

Pyruvate and it might also be lactate

Where are ribosomal subunits formed and stored?

In nucleolus

If we metabolize glucose without oxygen, it is called

Anaerobic glycolysis, its net profit is limited

In oxidized phosphorylation, what is being phosphorylated?

We are taking ADP and converting it to ATP

Does oxidized phosphorylation require coenzymes

YES because they carry the electrons

Do the coenzymes need to be unoccupied for phosphorylation?

Yes, because they need to be unoccupied to carry electrons

Fatty acid synthesis takes place in cytosol

YES, this is where lipid synthesis takes place

When you produce a fatty acid, chain must be assembled with how many carbons?

An EVEN number of carbons

It costs more energy to produce fatty acid than it gets when it breaks it down, but what makes it energy efficient?

But it DOES store most energy, which is broken down when it's needed

What is a good way to transport lots of energy in a light way

Fat

Greatest amount of energy is found in

FAT

Digestion of fat produces

KETONES

Digestion of proteins produces

AMMONIA

Body stores ammonia as what to make it less offensive

UREA

What is the name of cell division?

Cytokinesis

What is mitosis

a division of the DNA

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