This element is important for membrane function.
Atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons.
Reactivity of an Atom
Determined by electrons in the electron cloud
attraction between cations and anions
STRONG electron bonds involving shared electrons
WEAK polar bonds based on partial electrical attractions
two or more atoms joined by strong bonds
two or more atoms OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS joined by strong or weak bonds
Compounds are all molecules, but not all molecules are compounds.
Compounds are all ________, but not all ________ are compounds.
H2 is a molecule
Is H2 a molecule? A compound? or both?
H2O is a molecule and a compound
Is H2O a molecule? A compound? or both?
Step 1 of ionic bond formation. One atom, the electron donor, loses one or more electrons and becomes a cation with a positive charge. This is called __________.
Step 2 of ionic bond formation. Another atom, the electron acceptor, gains those same electrons and becomes an anion, with a negative charge. This is called __________.
high ionization energies
High electronegativity differences between atoms. Occurs in ionic bond formation.
low ionization energies
Similar electronegativity differences between atoms. Occurs in covalent bond formation.
single covalent bond
sharing one pair of electrons
double covalent bond
sharing two pairs of electrons
triple covalent bond
sharing three pairs of electrons
nonpolar covalent bond
EQUAL sharing of electrons because atoms involved in the bond have equal pull for the electrons
polar covalent bond
UNEQUAL sharing of electrons because one of the atoms involved in the bond has a disproportionately strong pull on the electrons
--formed by polar covalent bonds
A molecule of water has what kind of bonds?
bond between adjacent MOLECULES, not atoms
evaporation; surface tension
Hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules slow rate of _______ and creates _____ _____.
materials going into a reaction
materials coming out of a reaction
all of the reactions that are occuring at one time
the power to do work
a change in mass or distance
energy of motion
stored energy (e.g., a book on a shelf)
potential energy stored in chemical bonds
Synthesis reaction aka?
Decomposition reaction aka?
Does a synthesis reaction form or break chemical bonds?
Does a decomposition reaction form or break chemical bonds?
adding water, which breaks bonds
What is hydration/hydrolysis?
Decomposition first, then synthesis (breaks bonds down, then forms them)
What is a exchange reaction?
reaction that occurs simultaneously in both directions
What is a reversible reaction?
CO2+H2O<-->H2CO3<-->H^+ + HCO3-
What is the chemical formula for a reversible reaction?
the amount of energy needed to get a reaction started
protein catalysts that LOWER the activation energy of reactions-->speed up reactions
exergonic (exothermic) reactions
RELEASE OR PRODUCE more energy than required by the activation energy to start a reaction
endergonic (endothermic) reactions
REQUIRE OR ABSORB more energy than released to begin the reaction
uniform mixture of two or more substances
aka a medium, in which atoms, ions, or molecules of a solute are individually dispersed
atoms, ions, or molecules that are dispersed in a solvent
to moisten and reduce friction
formed by polar water molecules around ions and small polar molecules to keep them in solution
inorganic ions that conduct electricity in solution; conducted by an aqueous solution containing anions and cations, where the cations (+) move towards the negative terminal and the anions (-) move towards the positive terminal
generation of heat to maintain body temperature, combustion reaction of fuels, adding concentrated acid to water, burning of a substance
Example of exothermic reaction
chemical cold pack w/ ammonium nitrate and water, evaporation of water, photosynthesis
Example of endothermic reaction
The electrolyte, sodium bicarbonate
Na+ + HCO3-
Ions released by NaHCO3 (sodium bicarbonate) with water
this imbalance seriously disturbs vital body functions
--water loving/interacts with water
--includes polar molecules and ions
--does not interact with water
--includes nonpolar molecules, fats, and oils
a solution of very large organic molecules, like blood plasma or milk
a solution in which particles settle (sediment), for example, whole blood
amount of solute in a solvent (mol/L, mg/ml)
stands for potential hydrogen; concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution
More H+ ions mean ______ pH, less H+ ions mean _____ pH
donor (it adds H+ ions to a solution)
Is an acid a proton donor or acceptor?
acceptor (it removes H+ ions from a solution)
Is a base a proton donor or acceptor?
weak acids and weak bases
--fail to disassociate completely
--help balance pH
--solutes that dissociate into cations and anions other than hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions
--weak acids/salt compounds
--neutralizes strong acids or strong bases
--ex: sodium bicarbonate (Na+HCO3-)
a basic compound that neutralizes acid and forms a salt
trioses, pentoses, hexoses
3 types of monosaccharides
maltose, sucrose, lactose
3 types of disaccharides
glycosidic bond (associated with carbs)
Two monosaccharides are linked by what kind of bond to make a disaccharide?
long chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxylic acid group (COOH) at one end
saturated fatty acids
fatty acids with hydrogen (4 single covalent bonds around a carbon atom)
unsaturated fatty acid
fatty acids with 1 or more double bonds
monounsaturated fatty acid
one double bonded fatty acid
polyunsaturated fatty acid
two or more double bonds
The longer the hydrocarbon tail, the ______ the solubility of the molecule.
a class of eicosanoid; active in immune response
a class of eicosanoid; short-chain fatty acids; produces sensation of pain/triggers start of labor contractions
fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule;
linked together by an ester bond
What bond links together fatty acids and a glycerol molecule?
glycerol+one fatty acid
glycerol+two fatty acids
glycerol+three fatty acids
energy source, insulation, protection
The three functions of triglycerides
a type of lipid; four rings of carbon and hydrogen with an assortment of functional groups
cholesterol, estrogens and testosterone, corticosteroids and calcitriol, bile salts
4 types of steroids
a type of steroid; component of plasma (cell) membranes
estrogens and testosterone
a type of steroid; sex hormones (androgens)
corticosteroids and calcitriol
a type of steroid; metabolic regulation
derived from steroids; produced in the liver, stored in the gallbladder
diglyceride attached to a phosphate group
diglyceride attached to a sugar
the most abundant and important organic molecules
C, H, O, N
Proteins contain what four basic elements?
How many amino acids are there? How many are essential/obtained from diet?
support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination and control, defense
What are the 7 major functions of proteins?