explain how to use the p<.o5 to determine rejection of the null hypothesis, assuming the author is using a significance level of .05
you would reject. if you refect the null hypothesis then you take the next hypothesis. it's quantitative
no difference, no significance, no relationship, etc.
what type of study is designed to gather knowledge that has direct clinical application?
performed in practical setting w/ subjects that represent the group. used in most nursing research
identify the dependent variable in the following hypothesis: "exercisers exhibit higher self-efficacy scores compared to non-exercisers."
independent: exercising (also population of interest in this ex)
the research is quantitative b/c we/re comparing. aka a directional alternative hypothesis
dependent variable is the _
independent variable is _
what you are doing/ the cause
what do we call hypotheses that do not specify a particular direction in relation to variables under study?
a NON directional
as a general rule, level of significance do researchers most often use?
.05 or 95% for nursing
higher risk for mortality
give an an example of a null hypothesis.
no difference, no correlation, etc. must be stated in the hypothesis
what sampling method is the best way to select a group of subjects if you are interested in making statements about the larger population?
the most meaningful research problems come from what sources
nursing practice: theory, riew lit, replication
all members of a population have an equal chance of being selected as subjects in a research project. what type of sampling is this called?
you decide to select a sample of 100 subjects of whom 10% will be african american, 10% hispanic, & 80% caucasian. identify the appropriate sampling design.
represent culture and ethnicity appropriately. if you attach a number it becomes quota & cant stop until you get that percent
what type of theory is complex & broad in scope?
what is are forms of nonrandom sampling
describe the types of reliability
interrater (consistency between researchers, coding, responses, etc)
internal consistency (questions are internally consistent)
what types of criterion-related validity evidence
concurrent (happening at the same time is their validity between the 2),
predictive (how you do in testing in class will predict how you will do on nclex)
test-retest reliability focuses on the _ of an instrument?
consistency (you can do it again & again) [validity means did it answer the question you asked)
accurately describe test-retest reliability
amount of time between time test was taken. environment, etc can make a difference. it's stronger if use repeated measures of diff types (ex. test w/ stick & send it to lab for culture test or fast strep test then culture)
a variable is a measurable characteristic that varies in what
populations (population of interest)
as a nurse you rate a patients pain on a scale from "no pain" as 0 to "greatest pain ever" as 10. this results in what type of scale?
cue methodology. [Pg. 139.] ordinal-this is lowest to highest w/o equal diff. between them
likert scales are sometimes referred to as _.
ex. of likert scale
strongly disagree, disagree, agree, strongly agree. use as numbers to organize but you can sum
the tendency for participants to respond to an item on a questionnaire in a way that does no reflect the real situation is called a _.
_ observation is usually done for studying and describing a culture in a natural setting. it's also reffered to as _.
what is an ex of a historical event that emphasizes the protection of individuals from risk or harm in research
declaration of helsinki,
specific to protective individual
both open ended & closed ended questionnaires are used in research. what type of questions are used for qualitative _ & what type of questions are used for quantitative.
open ended questions,
close ended questions
describe 3 types of methods of data collection
what is the purpose of descriptive statistics?
observe data. its quantitative
what level of measurement represents the highest level
in what type of study is the treatment assignment unknown to only the patient
define characteristics of a research critique
evaluates major aspects, clear & concise, explanations that justifies comments, do's and don'ts (pg 252-255?)
what value represents the 50th percentile or midpoint of a distribution
there are several ways in which confounding extraneous variables an be controlled. what control technique is considered the best?
true experimental design, random assignment
what can be used for randomly assigning subjects to groups in an experimental study?
draw out of hat,
computer programs, etc
investigators working on a burn unit measured the amount of wound granulation, the number of wound infections, and the extent of the burn injury on all burn patients. what finding would be most important to researchers in relation to successful random assignment
extent of burn injury
control groups in experiments are used to_
determine if the independent variable is caused by the dependent variable
the group that receives the experimental treatment condition is the _ group
true experiments are designed primarily to answer questions that test _
theories (hypotheses). causes, the cause & effect
_ research is used to describe the lied experience
a research approach that involves prolonged residence w/members of a culture being studied is often referred to as_
field work/ cultural anthropology
a form of qualitative stat analysis that categorizes unit of meaning through a process of comparing incident to incident is _
constant comparative method of data analysis
the term used to describe preconceptions and feelings about a phenomenon is _
grounded theory has its disciplinary origin in an emerging design, common in _
qualitative research, self care, adaptation. to develop grand theories
a brief summary of research study is often referred to as _
indicate where in the research report the following statement is likely to be found. "the sample consisted of 88 individuals w/cancer, assessed as being at risk for nutritional problems, as indicated by weight loss over 5% over a 2 month period or persistent changes in patterns of eating."
results section (note use of the past tense w/ the data)
the extent to which research findings can be generalized beyond the given research situation is referred to as_
indicate where in the research report, the following statement is likely to be found: "the correlation of r=0.40, found in the present study, is consistent w/ the works of jones in 1983 who reported similar results in her study of college-age adults..."
discussion (note it compares to someone else's researh
in what section of a research report are results of a study explained and interpreted
in critiquing a research report where would recommendations made by the researcher for nursing practice be found
a distinguishing characteristic of evidence based practice as compared w/ traditional nursing practice is the use of _