cutting into a vein
What instruments are used to draw capillary blood?
micropipette, lancet or micro-collection tubes
Name three types of needles used by phlebotomists.
hypodermic needle, butterfly needle, and double ended needle.
How much blood specimen is taken from a donor for a blood bank?
What two test tube colors are used in blood banks?
Red and pink
What are the two types of tests are conducted at blood banks?
blood typing and cross-matching
What is the group name for our blood types?
What is the least common blood type but universal recipient?
What is the universal donor?
When using a butterfly or wing infusion set, how will you know you are in the vein?
Arteries, Capillaries and Veins are...
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the tissues
a blood vessel which acts as a connective tissue carrying blood between an artery and a vein, allowing the exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid
a blood vessel which carries deoxygenated blood rich in carbon dioxide
Name three different blood cells.
Red, White and Platelets.
What are the scientific names used when referring to blood cells?
Erythrocytes, Leukocytes and Thrombocytes.
What is the primary function of Erythrocytes?
to carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells of tissues and return carbon dioxide and metabolic waste.
The pigmented iron rich protein found in Erythrocytes.
The life span of and Erythrocyte
Erythrocytes are born in the
What is phagocytosis?
when cells engulf and digest foreign cells and molecules.
Name 5 Leukocytes.
Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils, Monocytes and Lymphocytes.
What is the most abundant Leukocyte?
The two sub sectors of Leukocytes are?
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Granulocytes are generated by?
Red Bone Marrow
The condition is typically caused by a hereditary lack of a coagulation factor.
A leakage of blood within the tissues.
The ability to maintain stable equilibrium
The destruction of red blood cells
How does a lab technician know a specimen is hemolyzed?
The liquid part of the blood remains red or pink when it should be clear or yellow.
super concentration of cellular elements due to prolonged tourniquet usage.
Overproduction of red blood cells, or thickening of the blood is called
An extreme over production of white blood cells.
Low WBC count
High WBC count
What are the differences between Plasma and Serem?
Plasma contains a calcium binding protein called fibrinogen and is the liquid portion of unclotted blood. Whereas Serem contains Fibrin and is the liquid part of clotted blood.
90% water, 9% protein and 1% others such as electrolytes, hormones and enzymes is also known as
The liquid part of the whole blood equal what percentage?
The solid or formed elements of the blood makes up what percentage?
to invert 8- 10 times
indicates the vaccutainer tube contains anti-coagulant
EDTA, heparin, coumadin, sodium citrate and potassium oxalate
What additive is present in the lavender tube, for what test and department?
contains EDTA for CBC or hematocrit count which is transported to the department of Hematology.
What additive is present in the lt blue tube, for what test and department?
contains Sodium Citrate for APTT and PTT test, which is transported to the department of Hematology.
For glucose and alcohol content--What tube would you use with what additive for what department?
Gray tube containing potassium oxolate and sodium heparin to be delivered to the department of Chemistry.
If a physician orders a culture for bacterial infections what tube would you use for what department to analyze?
Yellow to the Microbiology department
Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcing the maintenance of a healthy and safe work environment.
A gel in a tube normally indicates
low blood glucose
high blood glucose
Therapeutic phlebotomy is used an alternative to what? What malfunction can this help with?
Blood thinners and Polycythemia
What is the normal RBC, WBC and Platelet count?
RBC: 4.5-6 million cu. mill, WBC: 5,000-10,000/ cu.mill, Platelets: 150,000-450,000 cu. mill
Our bodies first line of defense against pathogens is our
Low Platelet count
High Platelet count
normal bleeding time after venipuncture procedure
name two arteries
Aorta and Pulminary Arteries
Pulminary Arteries primary function
carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Aortas primary function
supplies oxygenated blood to the circulatory system
basillic vein is found
along the pinky side
cephallic vein is found
along the thumb side
antecubital veins do not include what veins?
most frequently used vein by phlebotomists
veins with hematoma, same side as IV or dialysis, and same side as mastectomy are
Veins to Avoid
A.B.G. or B.G.A. requires what type of blood, testing what system?
Arterial Blood testing the CO2 vs. O2 pressure in the respiratory system.
What type of special handling is needed for a B.G.A. test?
A biohazard bag or container filled with crushed ice and a 3cc syringe with an anti-coagulant, normally heparin.
this blood is a combination of venus, arterial and tissue fluid
A buffy coat is made up of
WBC and Platelets
the process of separating blood into separate layers is known as
P.P.E. stands for
Personal Protection Equipment
the ideal sized guage needle is
a 15 degree angle is used for
the study of abnormal cells
a normal sized cell is classified as a
an large cell is classified as a
a small cell is classified as a
bending of the a patients head is recommended when he/she is
proper order of vaccutainer draw
culture, coagulants, empty, heparin, EDTAS, gray, then royal blue
Must be done immediately
STAT (within 30 minutes)
test to occur at specific time of day
indicates patient did NOT follow instructions and ate solids and or liquids. Plasma will then show up cloudy, yielding a rejected sample. THANKS DICKWAD!
RESTING STATE- no eating, no exercise for 12 hours
Two dermal puncture sites
middle/ring finger, or heels little toe side
an infection acquired after admission to a healthcare facility
Reverse isolation is common practice for those patients with
an immune deficiencies, geriatrics or newborns.
Patients whom which have intestinal infections such as salmonella yield
a gown, mask and gloves must be used for
strict, contact, respiratory and TB isolation
Three types of Glucose tests
GTT, FBS, or postprandial test: Glucose Tolerance Test, Fasting blood sugar, postprandial=2 hours after eating a diet high in carbohydrates
What is a Billirubin test and how is the test handled?
tests for liver function, requires serum, and protection from light (tube wrapped in aluminum foil)
How is a CPK test handled and what is this testing for?
usually ordered on inpatient in BASAL STATE to properly test any damage to cardiac muscle.
Serum Separator Tube = Gold or Tiger Tops
Nothing by mouth -or- FASTING
FDP is a coagulation test. What tube is used
light blue with YELLOW LABEL
Name two types of coagulation test abbreviations
FDP, and aPTT/PTT
BUN= Blood Urea Nitrogen, what type of test
Renal test to help diagnose kidney disease
Acid phosphate is used to test_____ in what tube?
Prostate function, Red top or SST
Amylase test is a test for
Micro-organisms can be a
virus, fungus or bacteria
what are the differences between anerobic and aerobic bacteria?
anerobic- grows without air, while aerobic- grows with air
Two types of tests where specimens need to be chilled.
B.G.A. and parathyroid hormone test
What are the requirements necessary for a successful Carotene test? What is this testing for?
Protection from light, testing for Vitamin A levels
What angle is best for a blood smear?
The glycolic happy drink used for GTT should be consumed within what time span?
30 minutes -maximum, chug b/c it dosen't taste so pleasant!