each skeletal muscle fiber is a long cylindrical cell with multiple oval nuclei just beneath its.....
thick filaments are composed primarily of what type of protein
thin filaments are composed chiefly of what type of protein
A. the major role of these intracellular tubules is to regulate intracellular levels of ionic calcium.
B. It stores calcium and releases it on demand when the muscle fiber is stimlated to contract
provides the final "GO" signal for contraction
Neuromuscular Junction AKA nmj
The axon of each motor neuron divides profusely as it enters the muscle, and each axon ending gives off several short curling branches that collectively form an elliiptical _______________________ with a single muscle fiber.
the axon terminal and the muscle fiber are exceedingly close, but they remain seperated by a space called the _____________
the sacrolemma is stored to its initial polarized state during _________________
during repolarization, a muslce fiber is said to be in a __________________, because the cell cannot be stimulated again until repolarization is complete.
the myosine head bines to the__________.
the force exerted by a contracting muscle on an object is called_____________.
A ______________ consists of a motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it supplies.
The ______________ is the first few milliseconds following stimulation when excitation-contraction coupling is occuring. Also the first phase of a myogram twitch .
In _________________, muscle length changes and moves the load
In _________________,tension may build to the muscle's peak tension- producing capacity, but the muscle neither shortens nor lengthens
_______________ a unique high-energy molecule strored in muscles, is tapped to regenerate ATP while the metabolic pathways are adjusting to the suddenly higher demands for ATP
This substance is stored in the muscle.
________________ occurs in the mitochondria, requires oxygen, andinvolves a sequence of chemical reactions in which the bonds of fuel molecules are broken and the energyreleased is used to make ATP
The alternating contraction and relaxation of these opposing layers mixes substances in the lumen and squeezes them through the organs internal pathway. This propulsive action is called _____________.
as the muscle shortens, its ________ moves toward its ____________ .
attachements on the movable bone
its fixed or immovable point of attachment
Antagonists, Fixators, Prime movers, and Synergists
muscles can be classified into four functional groups:......... what are they in ABC order.
Prime Mover, Antagonist
A muscle that has the major responsibility for producing a specific movement is a __________ or ___________
may be stretched or remain relaxed.
"against the leader"
When synergists immobilize a bone, or a muscle's origin so that the prime mover has a stable base on which to act, they are more specifically called___________.
what does Brevis mean
The terms ___________ and _______ indicate that the muscle fibers run respectively at right angles and obliquely to that line
Biceps, Triceps, Quadriceps,Two, Three, Four
When _________,____________, and ____________ forms part of a muscles name, you can assume that the muscle has ______,_________,or ________ origins, respectively.
When the fasicles are arranged in concentric rings, what fasicular pattern is being reprisented.
Muscles with the circular fasicle arrangement surround external body openings, which they close by contracting, Ageneral term for such muscles is ____________
A ____________ muscle has a broad origin, and its fasicles converge toward a single tendon of insertion.
A _______ is a rigid bar that moves on a fixed point is called a ________
Muscle contraction provides the _________ which is applied at the muscles insertion point on a bone
A mechanical advantage is commonly called a ______________.
A mechanical DISadvantage is known as a ________________.
The effort is applied between the load and the fulcrum in the _____________ levers.
Closes lips: purses and protrudes lips: kissing and whistling muscle
Prime mover of jaw closure: elevates mandible. (chewer)
Broad muscle pierced by the aorta, inferior vena cava, and esophagus, forms floor of thoracic cavity, in relaxed state is dome shaped : fibers converged from margns of thoracic cage toward a boomerang-shaped central tendon
Powerful forearm extensor.
Opposition: moves thumb to touch tip of little finger
Arises from four seperate heads that form the flesh of front and sides of thigh: rectus femoris, lateral, medial,and intermediate vasti muscles.
Is not part of the quadriceps
Central Nervous System
consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
_______________ is the part of the nervous system outside the CNS
the automatic nervous system has two function subdivisions. Name the subdivision that stimulates the fight or flight reaction
Name the subdivision of the automatic nervous system that inhibits and induces rest and controls the digestion
________ are small ovoid cells with relatively long "thorny" processes. Their processes touch nearby neurons, monitoring their health and when they sense that certain neurons are injured or in other trouble,
what cells surround and form mylen sheaths around the larger nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system
Neuron Cell Body
what consists of a spherical Nucleus, with a conspicious Nucleoulus
Rough endoplasmic reticulum is reffered to as what
Clusters of cell bodies in the CNS are called ________
Cell bodies that lie along the nerves in the PNS are called _________
Short brandhing extensions of motor nuerons are called ___________
Receptive, Input Regions
Dendrites are the main _________ or ______________
__________ also convey incoming messages toward the cell body.
Axon, Conducting Region
The _______ is the _______________ of the neuron. It generates nerve impuses and transmits them, typically away from the cell body
Nodes of Ranvier
Adjacent schwann cells along an axon do not touch one another, so there are gaps in the sheath. These gaps are called what?
Neurons are highly _______ and _________.
Action Potential, Nerve Impulse
When a neuron is adequetly stimulated , and electrical impulse is generated and conducted along the length of its axon. This response is called the ___________ or _______________
Resting Membrane Potental, Polarized
The potential difference in a resting neuron is called the ________________________, and the membrane is said to be _______________.
When a patch of neuron membrane is generating an AP and its Voltage-gated sodium channels are open, the neuron cannot respond to another stimulusno matter how strong. This is referred to as the
____________ are specialized for release and reception of chemical neurotransmitters.
Post Synaptic Membrane
make up the structure of what?
___________ occurs when one or more presynaptic neurons transmit impulses in rapid-fire orderand bursts of nuerotransmitters are released in quick successions
_______________ occurs when the postsynaptic neuron is stimulated at the same time by a large number of terminals from the same or, more commonly different neurons
_______________ , along with electrical signals, are the "____________" of the nervous system.
Ectoderm, Neural Plate
Starting in the three-week- old embryo, the ________ thickens along the dorsal midline axis of the embryo to form the ______________
___________are continuos with one another and with the central canal of the spinal cord
The hollow ventricle chambers are filled with cerebrospinal and lined by _________________
primary Motor Cortex
Located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe of each hemisphere is what?
Memory bank for skilled motor activities
Primary Visual Cortex
Seen on the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe.
anterior association area, Prefrontal Cortex
The _______________________ in the frontal lobe, is also called the ____________________, is the most complicated cortical region of all. It is involved with intellect, complex, learning abilities, recall, and personality. It contains working memory, which is necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgement, reasoning,persistence, and planning
complex learning abilities (cognition), intellect, recall, personality, planning, persistence, judgement, reasoning, and ideas
Anterior Associate Area involves/ responsible for :......
Information is sorted out and "edited",impulses having to do with similar functions are relayed as a group. Where does this take place ?
The main visceral control center of the body.
Autonomic Control Center,
Center for Emotional Response,
Control of Endocrine System, Functioning,
Body Temperature Regulation,
Regulation of Food Intake,
Regulation of Sleep-Wake cycle, Regulation of Water Balanc and Thirst
The hypothalamuss' homeostatic roles in ABC order are what.
The ______ gland secretes the hormone _____________ and along with hypothalamic nuclei, helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle
________________ which raise four domelike protrusions on the dorsal midbrain surface
The ________________ are visual reflex centers that coordinate head and eye movementswhen we visually follow a moving object even if we are not consciously looking ar th object.
The _______________ are part of the auditory relay from the hearing receptors of the ear to the sensory cortex.
Cardiovascuar center, Respiratory center
Nuclei found in the medulla
(there are 2)
A. Fine Control, Coordination, and Balance
B. __________provides the precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction for smooth coordinated movements and agility needed for our daily living
fats,fatty acids,oxygen,carbon dioxide
The barrier is ineffective against ______, ____________,__________,_________ and other fat soluble molecules that diffuse easily through all pllasma membranes.
the spinal cord enclosed in the vertebral column extends from the foramen magnum of the skull to the level of the _________ or ________ lumbar vertebra.
Lumbar Puncture, Tap
the subarachnoid space within the meningeal sac inferior to that point provides a nearly ideal spot for removing cerebrospinal fluid for testing , a precedure called_____________ or___________
A fribrous extension of the conus covered by pia mater, extends inferiorly from the conus medullaris to the coccyx, where it anchors the spinal cord in place so it is jostled by body movement.
*Dorsal Root Ganglion, Spinal Ganglion *
*The cell bodies of the associated sensory neurons are found in an enlarged region of the dorsal root called the ___________________ or ______________.*
The ______________ pathways conduct sensory impulses upwards, typically through chains of three successive neurons ( first, second, and third-order neurons)
*Motor pathways involve two neurons, referred to as the _________ and _________ motor neurons.*