Chapter 19 BEC 2011 CPA

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1) Prime cost

equals direct materials plus direct labor, i.e., those costs directly attributable to a product (DM + DL).

2) Conversion cost

2) Conversion cost equals direct labor plus manufacturing overhead, i.e., the costs of converting raw materials into the finished product (DL + OH).

3) Product costs

3) Product costs (also called inventoriable costs) are capitalized as part of finished goods inventory. They eventually become a component of cost of goods sold.

1) Period costs

1) Period costs are expensed as incurred, i.e., they are not capitalized in finished goods inventory and are thus excluded from cost of goods sold. Under GAAP, all manufacturing costs (direct materials, direct labor, variable overhead, and fixed overhead) must be treated as product costs, and all selling and administrative (S&A) costs must be treated as period costs.

5) Direct costs

5) Direct costs are ones that can be associated with a particular cost object in an economically feasible way, i.e., they can be traced to that object.

1) Indirect costs

1) Indirect costs are ones that cannot be associated with a particular cost object in an economically feasible way and thus must be allocated to that object.

Common costs

Common costs are another notable type of indirect cost. A common cost is one shared by two or more users.
a) The key to common costs is that, since they cannot be directly traced to the users that generate the costs, they must be allocated using some systematic and rational basis.

a. Relevant costs

a. Relevant costs are those future costs that will vary depending on the action taken. All other costs are assumed to be constant and thus have no effect on (are irrelevant to) the decision.
1) An example is tuition that must be spent to attend a fourth year of college.

b. Sunk costs

b. Sunk costs are costs either already paid or irrevocably committed to incur. Because they are unavoidable and will therefore not vary with the option chosen, they are not relevant to future decisions.
1) An example is 3 years of tuition already spent. The previous 3 years of tuition
make no difference in the decision to attend a fourth year.

Gross margin

Gross margin is the intermediate figure between sales and operating income under absorption (full) costing. All manufacturing (and only manufacturing) costs, both variable and fixed, are subtracted to arrive at gross margin.
1) Only costs directly associated with manufacturing the product may be subtracted.
2) This is the only acceptable calculation under GAAP.

Contribution margin

Contribution margin is the intermediate figure when variable (direct) costing is used. All variable (and only variable) costs, both manufacturing and selling and administrative, are subtracted to arrive at contribution margin.
1) Contribution margin is the amount available to the firm to cover fixed costs.
This calculation is often used for internal (managerial) reporting purposes.

job-order

job-order costing is appropriate when producing products with individual characteristics or when identifiable groupings are possible.
1) Costs are attached to specific "jobs." Each job will result in a single, identifiable end product.
Examples are any industry that generates custom-built products, such as shipbuilding

Process costing

Process costing is used when similar products are mass produced on a continuous basis.
1) Costs are attached to specific departments or phases of production. Examples are automobile and candy manufacturing.
2) Since costs are attached to streams of products rather than individuals, process costing involves calculating an average cost for all units. The two widely used methods are weighted-average and first-in, first-out (FIFO).
3) Some units remain unfinished at the end of the period. For each department to adequately account for the costs attached to its unfinished units, the units must be restated in terms of equivalent units of production (EUP).

Activity-based costing (ABC)

Activity-based costing (ABC) attaches costs to activities rather than to physical goods.
1) ABC is a response to the distortions of product cost information brought about by peanut-butter costing, which is the inaccurate averaging or spreading of costs like peanut butter over products or service units that use different amounts of resources.

Life-cycle costing

Life-cycle costing emphasizes the need to price products to cover all the costs
incurred over the lifespan of a product, not just the costs of production.
1) Costs incurred before production, such as R&D and product design, are referred to as upstream costs.
2) Costs incurred after production, such as marketing and customer service, are called downstream costs.

Backflush costing

Backflush costing delays the assignment of costs until the goods are finished.
1) After production is finished for the period, standard costs are flushed backward through the system to assign costs to products. The result is that detailed tracking of costs is eliminated.

a. Normal spoilage

a. Normal spoilage is the spoilage that occurs under normal operating conditions. It is essentially uncontrollable in the short run.
1) Since normal spoilage is expected under efficient operations, it is treated as a product cost, that is, it is absorbed into the cost of the good output.

b. Abnormal spoilage

b. Abnormal spoilage is spoilage that is not expected to occur under normal, efficient operating conditions. The cost of abnormal spoilage should be separately identified and reported to management.
1) Abnormal spoilage is typically treated as a period cost (a loss) because of its unusual nature.

a. Rework

a. Rework consists of end products that do not meet standards of salability but can be brought to salable condition with additional effort.
1) The decision to rework or discard is based on whether the marginal revenue to be gained from selling the reworked units exceeds the marginal cost of performing the rework.

b. Scrap

b. Scrap consists of raw material left over from the production cycle but still usable for purposes other than those for which it was originally intended.
1) Scrap may be used for a different production process or may be sold to outside customers, usually for a nominal amount.

c. Waste

c. Waste consists of raw material left over from the production cycle for which there is no further use.
1) Waste is not salable at any price and must be discarded.

breakeven point

a. The breakeven point is the level of output at which total revenues equal total expenses, that is, the point at which operating income is zero.

margin of safety

b. The margin of safety is a measure of risk. It is the excess of budgeted revenues over breakeven revenues (or budgeted units over breakeven units).

c. Mixed costs

c. Mixed costs (or semivariable costs) are costs with both fixed and variable elements.

revenue (sales) mix

d. The revenue (sales) mix is the composition of total revenues in terms of various products, i.e., the percentages of each product included in total revenues. It is maintained for all volume changes.

e. Sensitivity analysis

e. Sensitivity analysis examines the effect on the outcome of not achieving the original forecast or of changing an assumption.

f. Unit contribution margin (UCM

f. Unit contribution margin (UCM) is the unit selling price minus the unit variable cost.
It is the contribution from the sale of one unit to cover fixed costs (and possibly a targeted profit).

Operating income

Operating income = Sales - Variable costs - Fixed costs

Breakeven point in units

1) The UCM is $.40 ($.60 sales price — $.20 variable cost). Thus, to cover $10,000 of fixed costs, 25,000 units ($10,000 ÷ $.40 UCM) must be sold to break even.

Absorption Costing

Under absorption costing (sometimes called full or full absorption costing), the fixed
portion of manufacturing overhead is "absorbed" into the cost of each product.

Absorption must.....

1) Product cost thus includes all manufacturing costs, both fixed and variable.
2) Absorption-basis cost of goods sold is subtracted from sales to arrive at gross margin.
3) Total selling and administrative expenses (i.e., fixed and variable) are then subtracted from gross margin to arrive at operating income.
4) This method is required under GAAP for external reporting purposes and under the Internal Revenue Code for tax purposes. The justification is that, for external reporting, product cost should include all manufacturing costs.

Variable Costing

a. Variable costing (sometimes called direct costing) is more appropriate for internal reporting. The term "direct costing" is somewhat misleading because it suggests traceability, which is not what is meant in this context. "Variable costing" is more suitable.

Product costs only include what under variable costing.....

Product cost includes only variable manufacturing costs

Under variable costing what is the formula to arrive at contribution margin.....

b. Variable cost of goods sold and the variable portion of selling and administrative expenses are subtracted from sales to arrive at contribution margin.
CM is important b/c it shows how mush $ there is to cover fixed expenses.

physical-unit method

a. The physical-unit method allocates joint production costs to each product based on its relative proportion of the measure selected.

estimated net realizable value (NRV) method

b. The estimated net realizable value (NRV) method also allocates joint costs based on the relative market values of the products.

constant gross-margin percentage NRV method
There are three steps under this method:

. The constant gross-margin percentage NRV method is based on allocating joint costs so that the gross-margin percentage is the same for every product.
1 There are three steps under this method:
a) Determine the overall gross-margin percentage.
b) Subtract the appropriate gross margin from the final sales value of each product to calculate total costs for that product.
c) Subtract the separable costs to arrive at the joint cost amount.

Inventoriable costs

Are regarded as assets before the products are sold.
Inventoriable costs, also called product costs, are capitalized as
part of finished goods inventory. Contrast this treatment with that of period costs, which
are expensed as they are incurred and are not capitalized as assets. Under an absorption
costing system, inventoriable costs include both variable and fixed costs of production;
under variable costing, inventoriable costs include only variable production costs.

In cost terminology, conversion costs consist of

Direct labor and factory overhead.

Indirect labor is a

Conversion costs include direct labor and factory overhead.
Because indirect labor is included in factory overhead, indirect labor is a conversion cost.

As required by GAAP, the fixed portion of the semivariable cost of electricity for a
manufacturing plant is a

A product cost is inventoried. A period cost is expensed when
incurred. Electricity costs are a part of manufacturing overhead. Manufacturing overhead
is a product cost, not a period cost.

Gram Co. develops computer programs to meet customers' special requirements. How should
Gram categorize payments to employees who develop these programs?

Direct costs may be defined as those that can be specifically
associated with a single cost object and can be assigned to it in an economically feasible
manner. Wages paid to labor that can be identified with a specific finished good are direct
costs. Value-adding costs may be defined as the costs of activities that cannot be
eliminated without reducing the quality, responsiveness, or quantity of the output required
by a customer or by an organization. Clearly, the amounts paid to programmers add value
to computer programs

For the year just ended, Abel Co. incurred direct costs of $500,000 based on a particular course
of action during the year. If a different course of action had been taken, direct costs would have
been $400,000. In addition, Abel's fixed costs were $90,000. The incremental cost was

Incremental cost analysis is typically used in make-or-buy, specialorder,
and disinvestment decisions. The analysis considers only additional relevant costs, such
as direct labor, direct materials, and variable overhead. Thus, Abel's incremental cost is
$100,000 ($500,000 - $400,000). The fixed costs of $90,000 are not relevant.

What is assigned to goods that were either purchased or manufactured for
resale?

Product cost includes the direct materials, direct labor, and
overhead allocated to units of output manufactured for resale. Product cost also may be
the costs of goods purchased for resale

Is sales commissions included in Gross margin?

Sales commissions ($10,000) are deducted from the gross
margin in arriving at net operating income. They are not included in cost of goods sold.

When only differential manufacturing costs are taken into account for special-order pricing, an
essential assumption is that

Acceptance of the order will not affect regular sales.Granting a lower-than-normal price for a special order has potential
ramifications for regular sales because other customers may demand the same price. Thus, the
decision to consider only differential manufacturing costs should be based on a determination
that all other costs are not relevant, that is, that these other costs do not vary with the option
chosen

company's target gross margin is 40% of the selling price of a product that costs $89 per
unit. The product's selling price should be

The gross margin is calculated as [1 - (Unit cost ÷ Unit selling
price)]. The question gives a company's target gross margin as 40%. Rearranging the
gross margin equation, the unit selling price equals [Unit cost ÷ (1 - Gross margin)].
Thus, the product's selling price is $148.33 [$89 ÷ (1 - .40)].

During the month just ended, Delta Co. experienced scrap, normal spoilage, and abnormal
spoilage in its manufacturing process. The cost of units produced includes

C. Scrap and normal spoilage, but not abnormal spoilage.

In the first
case, the costs of scrap remain in WIP. In the second case, the amounts realized indirectly
reduce the costs of all units. However, if scrap is applicable to a specific job, the realized
amounts directly reduce the cost of specific units. Regardless of the accounting, good
units continue to bear at least the costs of scrap that cannot be recovered by its sale. The
net cost of normal spoilage is likewise included in the cost of good units.

Hoyt Co. manufactured the following units:
Salable 5,000
Unsalable (normal spoilage) 200
Unsalable (abnormal spoilage) 300
Manufacturing costs totaled $99,000. What amount should Hoyt debit to finished goods?

Consequently, the cost of abnormal
spoilage is removed from the manufacturing costs based on the relative number of units
spoiling abnormally. Thus, the amount debited to finished goods is $93,600 {$99,000 - [300 ÷
(5,000 + 200 + 300) × $99,000]}.

The sale of scrap from a manufacturing process usually is recorded as a(n)

Decrease in factory A. overhead control.

Lake Co. has just increased its direct labor wage rates. All other budgeted costs and revenues
were unchanged. How did this increase affect Lake's budgeted breakeven point and budgeted
margin of safety?

The BEP is the sales volume at which total revenue equals total
cost. The margin of safety is the excess of budgeted sales over the breakeven volume.
Given that all other costs and revenues are constant, an increase in direct labor cost will
increase the BEP and decrease the margin of safety.

Product Cott has sales of $200,000, a contribution margin of 20%, and a margin of safety of
$80,000. What is Cott's fixed cost?

Sales minus the margin of safety equals the breakeven point
($200,000 - $80,000 = $120,000). Fixed costs equal the contribution margin at the
breakeven point, so fixed costs are $24,000 ($120,000 × 20%).

Breakeven analysis assumes over the relevant range that

Total costs are linear
Breakeven analysis assumes that the cost and revenue factors used in
the formula are linear and do not fluctuate with volume. Hence, fixed costs are deemed to be
fixed over the relevant range of volume, and variable cost per unit remains constant as volume
changes within the relevant range.

When a firm prepares financial reports by using absorption costing,

Profits may decrease with increased sales even if there is no change in selling prices and
costs.
In an absorption costing system, fixed overhead costs are included in
inventory. When sales exceed production, more overhead is expensed under absorption costing
because fixed overhead is carried over from the prior inventory. If sales exceed production,
more than one period's fixed overhead is recognized as expense. Accordingly, if the increase in
fixed overhead expensed is greater than the contribution margin of the increased units sold,
less profit may result from an increased level of sales

Which method of inventory costing treats direct manufacturing costs and manufacturing
overhead costs, both variable and fixed, as inventoriable costs?

Absorption (full) costing considers all manufacturing costs to be
inventoriable as product costs. These costs include variable and fixed manufacturing
costs, whether direct or indirect. The alternative to absorption is known as variable
(direct) costing.

Which one of the following statements is true regarding absorption costing and variable
costing?

If finished goods inventory increases, absorption costing results in higher income
nder variable costing, inventories are charged only with the variable
costs of production. Fixed manufacturing costs are expensed as period costs. Absorption
costing charges to inventory all costs of production. If finished goods inventory increases,
absorption costing results in higher income because

In an income statement prepared as an internal report using the variable costing method,
variable selling and administrative expenses are

Used in the computation of the contribution margin.
In a variable costing income statement, the contribution margin equals
sales minus all variable costs, which include the variable selling and administrative expenses
as well as variable manufacturing costs (direct materials, direct labor, and variable factory
overhead). Operating income equals the contribution margin minus all fixed costs.

A manufacturing company prepares income statements using both absorption and variable
costing methods. At the end of a period, actual sales revenues, total gross profit, and total
contribution margin approximated budgeted figures, whereas net income was substantially
greater than the budgeted amount. There were no beginning or ending inventories. The most
likely explanation of the net income increase is that, compared to budget, actual

Selling and administrative fixed expenses had decreased.
Both variable and absorption costing income statements exclude
fixed selling and administrative expenses from the calculation of gross profit (gross
margin) and contribution margin.

Which one of the following considers the impact of fixed overhead costs?

Full absorption costing treats fixed manufacturing overhead costs as
product costs. Thus, inventory and cost of goods sold include (absorb) fixed manufacturing
overhead.

The change in period-to-period operating income when using variable costing can be explained
by the change in the

Unit sales level multiplied by a constant unit contribution margin. In a variable costing system, only the variable costs are recorded as
product costs. All fixed costs are expensed in the period incurred. Because changes in the
relationship between production levels and sales levels do not cause changes in the amount of
fixed manufacturing cost expensed, profits more directly follow the trends in sales, especially
when the UCM (selling price per unit - variable costs per unit) is constant

In the application of variable costing as a cost-allocation process in manufacturing,

Variable indirect costs are treated as product costs.

In an income statement prepared for internal purposes using variable costing methods, would
1. gross profit margin appear?
2. would operating income appear?

Gross profit (margin) is selling price minus CGS. The
computation of CGS takes into account fixed manufacturing overhead in inventory
Variable costing treats fixed manufacturing
overhead as an expense in the period of incurrence. In variable costing, the contribution
margin (sales - variable costs) is calculated, not a gross profit (margin). Both methods,
however, compute operating income on their income statements.

When using a variable costing system, the contribution margin (CM) discloses the excess of

Contribution margin is the difference between revenues and
variable costs. No distinction is made between variable product costs and variable selling
costs; both are deducted from revenue to arrive at CM.

Which of the following cost allocation methods is used to determine the lowest price that can
be quoted for a special order that will use idle capacity within a production area?

If idle capacity exists, the lowest feasible price for a special order
is one covering the variable cost. Variable costing considers fixed cost to be a period cost,
not a product cost. Fixed costs are not relevant to short-term inventory costing with idle
capacity because the fixed costs will be incurred whether or not any production occurs.
Any additional revenue in excess of the variable costs will decrease losses or increase
profits.

In joint-product costing and analysis, which one of the following costs is relevant when
deciding the point at which a product should be sold to maximize profits?

Separable costs after the A. split-off point
Joint products are created from processing a common input. Joint
costs are incurred prior to the split-off point and cannot be identified with a particular
joint product.

What is the cost of ending inventory given the following factors?
Beginning inventory $ 5,000
Total production costs 60,000
Cost of goods sold 55,000
Direct labor 40,000

Beginning inventory, plus purchases (or other inventory additions),
minus cost of goods sold, equals ending inventory. Thus, ending inventory equals $10,000
($5,000 + $60,000 - $55,000). Direct labor is included in total production costs.

An increase in production levels within the relevant range would
A.Not change variable costs per unit.
B. Not change total variable costs.
C. Not change fixed costs per unit.
D. Change total fixed costs.

Answer (A) is correct. When production levels increase within a relevant range, the total
costs will obviously increase. Although the total fixed costs will remain constant, the
fixed costs per unit will decrease because more units are available to absorb the constant
amount of total fixed costs. Furthermore, total variable costs will increase while unit
variable costs will remain constant.

Special order with excess capacity available:
Fixed costs 21,000
Variable costs 33,000
1. fixed costs include 3700 for in house design not used.
2. special job will instead use outside firm costing 7,750
what is minimum acceptable price for this job?

$40,750 ($33,000 VC + $7,750 cost of external design).
Given excess capacity, the company presumably will not incur
opportunity costs if it accepts the special order. Assuming also that fixed costs will be
unaffected, the incremental cost of the order (the minimum acceptable price) will be

Direct materials $32
Direct labor 20
Variable manufacturing overhead 15
Fixed manufacturing overhead 6
Variable selling 3
Fixed selling 4

What are conversion costs?

Answer (B) is correct. Conversion costs are incurred in transforming raw materials into finished products. They include direct labor and manufacturing overhead. Thus, unit conversion costs equal $41 ($20 direct labor + $15 variable overhead + $6 fixed
overhead).

What is "Engineered Cost" refer to?

An engineered cost bears an observable and known relationship to a quantifiable activity base.

An Operation costing system is:

the same as a process costing system except that materials are allocated on the basis of batches of production

Smile labs develops film using a 4 step process that moves progressively through four departments. Each department accumulates dl, dm and oh the cost system that smile lab is using is.

Process costing. process costing is a method of allocating production costs to products and services by avg the cost over the total units produced. costs are usually accumulated by department rather than by job.

All of the following would generally be included in a cost of quality report, except:
a. Warranty claims.
b. Design engineering.
c. Supplier evaluations.
d. Lost contribution margin

Choice "d" is correct. Lost contribution margin (an opportunity cost) would generally not be included in a cost
of quality report.
Choices "a", "b", and "c" are incorrect. Included in a cost of quality report would be:
a. Warranty claims (an external failure cost).
b. Design engineering (a prevention cost).
c. Supplier evaluations (a prevention cost).

Product-quality-related costs are part of a total quality control program. A product-quality-related cost
incurred in detecting individual products that do not conform to specifications is an example of a(n):
a. Prevention cost.
b. Appraisal cost.
c. Internal failure cost.
d. External failure cost.

Choice "b" is correct. Appraisal costs would detect individual products that do not conform to specifications.
Examples of appraisal costs include:
Statistical quality checks
Inspections
Testing
Maintenance of lab

In recent years, much attention has been placed on product quality and total quality control. Which one of the
following items would not normally be considered a cost of quality?
a. Costs incurred in detecting defective products during production.
b. Costs incurred in detecting defective products produced before they are shipped to customers.
c. Costs incurred after defective products have been shipped to customers.
d. Costs incurred in shortening production lead times and achieving on-time deliveries.

Choice "d" is correct. Costs incurred in shortening product lead times and achieving on-time deliveries are
measures of performance and not a cost of quality.
Choices "a", "b", and "c" are incorrect, which are all costs

Which of the following is an example of prevention costs?
a. Lost customers.
b. Testing.
c. Tooling changes.
d. Redesign of processes.

Choice "d" is correct. Redesign of processes is an example of prevention costs.

Which of the following uses analysis of production processes to ensure that resource uses stay within target
costs?
a. Kaizen.
b. Activity-based Costing.
c. Value Chain Analysis.
d. Just-in-time.

Choice "a" is correct. Kaizen occurs at the manufacturing stage where the ongoing search for cost reductions
takes the form of analysis of production processes to ensure that resource uses stay within target costs.

Which one of the following is not a benefit of the implementation of the Just-in-time management strategy?
a. Cost reduction .
b. Variability increase.
c. Work-in-process reduction .
d. Quality improvement.

Choice "b" is correct. Just-in-time is not designed to produce variability but to accommodate production
cycles and reduce carried inventory by delivering goods to the manufacturing process just-in-time.

Which one of the following is an example of just-in-time being used for competitive advantage?
a. BAC Company has decreased the number of job classifications to just a few.
b. Big Deal Car Manufacturer increases the number of its suppliers to be less dependent on just a few.
c. AJAX Cement Company has built a new, huge warehouse to store inventory.
d. Acme Company tells its maintenance department to intervene only if a machine breaks down.

Choice "a" is correct. A benefit of just-in-time is a more efficient use of employees with multiple skills.

Performance of quality assurance occurs in which of the following processes?
a. Authorization.
b. Planning.
c. Implementation.
d. Close.

Choice "c" is correct. Quality assurance

Which of the following is a responsibility of the project manager?
a. Carrying out the work and producing the deliverables.
b. Interfacing between the organization and the project itself.
c. Approving project deliverables.
d. Identifying and managing internal and external stakeholder expectations.

Choice "d" is correct. The project manager is responsible for project administration on a day-to-day basis
including identifying and managing internal and external stakeholder expectations.

Which of the following is a role of the project sponsor?
a. Responsibility for overall project delivery.
b. Communicate project metrics to stakeholders and team members.
c. Develop, implement, monitor, control and end the plan when plan objectives have been met.
d. Communicate project needs to the Board of Directors.

Choice "a" is correct. The project sponsor is an individual at the executive level of management who is
responsible for allocating funding and resources to the project. The role of the project sponsor includes
responsibility for overall project delivery.

Which of the following is not a method for estimating the cost of a project?
a. Judgment.
b. Reserve Analysis.
c. Project Management Simulation (PMS).
d. Vendor bid analysis.

Choice "c" is correct. Project management simulation is not a method for estimating the cost of a project.

All of the following statements regarding project risk are correct, except:
a. Planning for risk management includes risk assessment.
b. Risk control includes anticipating everything that could go wrong throughout the project plans.
c. There is always a tradeoff between risk and reward.
d. Risk is inherent in every aspect of the project management process.

Choice "b" is correct. Anticipating everything that could go wrong throughout the project plans is a part of risk

Which of the following is not consistent with full employment?
a. An unemployment rate greater than zero.
b. Structural unemployment.
c. Cyclical unemployment.
d. Frictional unemployment.

Choice "c" is correct. When the economy is operating at full employment, there is no cyclical unemployment.
When the economy is operating at full employment, there is still some unemployment known as the natural

In an income statement prepared as an internal report using the direct (variable) costing method , fixed selling
and administrative expenses would:
a. Not be used.
b. Be treated the same as variable selling and administrative expenses.
c. Be used in the computation of operating income but not in the computation of the contribution margin .
d. Be used in the computation of the contribution margin .

Choice "c" is correct. Contribution margin is defined as net sales revenue less variable costs. Operating
income equals contribution margin less fixed costs.

Research and development costs are considered what type of costs? when comparing two possible product lines.

Research and development costs are considered sunk costs b/c they are in the past, unavoidable, and will not change with different alternatives.

Comel, Inc. has two major product lines: stoves and dryers. Comel's management wants to evaluate whether
discontinuing dryers will increase profits. Which of the following is best for evaluating the discontinuance of
the dryer product line?
a. Absorption cost.
b. Variable cost.
c. Relevant cost.
d. Throughput cost.

Choice "c" is correct. When considering alternatives, such as discontinuation of a product line, management
should consider relevant costs. Relevant costs are those costs that will change under different alternatives.

Sales = 200k
CM= 120k
fixed costs=90k
income taxes=12k
What is xcorps margin of safety?

Breakeven sales= 90k/(120/200k)
=90k/.6=150k
Margin of safety=200k-150k =50k

Selling Price 150k
Direct materials 20k
Direct labor 15k
VmOH 12k
Fmoh 30k
shipping and handling 3k
Fixed selling and admin 10k
total cost 90k
expected to be 10k units, manufacturing OH which will increase by 20 perecent and materials by 10 percent. selling price will be 160 dollars a unit, what will be the new CM for teh next year?

Selling price = $160
DM = -22
DL= -15
VMFG oh -12
fixed mfg oh not included dumbass
variable selling -3
fixed sga not included dumbass
total costs 52
margin = $108
x10,000 units =1080k

Product Cott has sales of $200,000, a contribution margin of 20%, and a margin of safety of $80,000. What is
Cott's fixed cost?

Since themargin of safety is $80,000 and sales are $200,000, breakeven sales must be $120,000 ($200,000 -
$80,000).
Breakeven sales $120,000
Contribution margin rate 20%
Contribution margin $ 24,000



At breakeven, fixed cost equals contribution margin, or $24,000.

Based on potential sales of 500 units per year, a new product has estimated traceable costs of $990,000.
What is the target price to obtain a 15% profit margin on sales?

Choice "a" is correct. Since a 15% profit is desired, the cost of $990,000 would be 85% of sales. (Remember
that profit + cost = sales.) Thus, sales are $1,164,700 ($990,000 + 85%). $1 ,164,700 + 500 units equals
$2,329 per unit.

Brent Co. has intracompany service transfers from Division Core, a cost center, to Division Pro, a profit
center. Under stable economic conditions, which of the following transfer prices is likely to be most conducive to evaluating whether both divisions have met their responsibilities?
a. Actual cost.
b. Standard variable cost.
c. Actual cost plus mark-up.
d. Negotiated price

Choice "b" is correct. Since the selling division is a cost center (not a profit center), its transfer price should
be based on standard costs, not actual costs or even actual cost plus mark-up. Using actual costs will not
provide an incentive for control of costs since the costs are simply passed on to the next division. Negotiated
prices are also not relevant when the selling division is a cost center since profit is not a divisional goal.

Which of the following costs are included in product or inventoriable costs in an absorption costing system?
a. Direct material , direct labor and variable overhead.
b. Direct material , direct labor and all overhead.
c. Direct material , direct labor, all overhead, and selling expenses.
d. Direct material , direct labor, all overhead , and all period expenses.

Choice "b" is correct. In an absorption costing system, all product costs and no period expenses are put into
product cost.

A budget manual , which enhances the operation of a budget system , is most likely to include:
a. A chart of accounts.
b. Distribution instructions for budget schedules.
c. Documentation of the accounting system software.
d. Company policies regarding the authorization of transactions.

Choice "b" is correct. The budget manual provides guidance during the preparation of the budgets. Among
other things, the budget manual would include instructions on the distribution of budget schedules.

Organic Enterprises cultivates potted plants and hybrids. Management conducted a careful engineering study
of product requirements and has developed standards to control production. Standards of this type are also
referred to as:
a. Authoritative standards.
b. Participative standards.
c. Ideal standards.
d. Attainable standards.

Choice "a" is correct. Standards imposed by management without employee input are referred to as
authoritative standards.

The best basis upon which cost standards should be set to measure controllable production inefficiencies is:
a. Normal capacity.
b. Recent average historical performance.
c. Engineering standards based on attainable performance.
d. Practical capacity.

Choice "c" is correct. The best basis for setting standards is engineering standards based on attainable
performance. Tight standards are good, but if unattainable, employees will not be motivated.

Many firms have made significant strides in reducing their inventories. Which of the following would be least
likely to encourage managers to reduce inventory?
a. Using variable costing.
b. Using absorption costing.
c. Using throughput costing.
d. Instituting a charge against the budget for managers based on the size of the inventory.

Choice "b" is correct. Absorption costing (as the name implies) absorbs fixed overhead cost into the units
produced. Those units placed in inventory can absorb some of the manager's cost and raise profits. This
method encourages larger inventories.

A regression equation:
a. Estimates the dependent variables.
b. Is based on objective and constraint functions.
c. Estimates the independent variable.
d. Ignores the coefficient of determination.

Choice "a" is correct. A regression equation is a statistical model that estimates the dependent variables
based on changes in the independent variable

What type of costs are as described?
1. joint production costs incurred, to be considered in a sell-at-split versus a process further decision?
2. the cost of obsolete inventory acquired several years ago, to be considered in a keep versus disposal decision.

sunk costs, are costs previous incurred unavoidable and not relevant to decision making. Joint production costs, before split off are considered sunk. The cost of obsolete inventory is also a sunk cost.

The opportunity cost of making a component part in a factory with no excess capacity is the:
a. Fixed manufacturing cost of the component.
b. Cost of the production given up in order to manufacture the component.
c. Net benefit given up from the best alternative use of the capacity.
d. Total manufacturing cost of the component.

Definition: Opportunity cost is the maximum benefit foregone by using a scarce resource for a given
purpose. It is the benefit provided by the next best use of that resource.
Choice "c" is correct. Opportunity cost is the net benefit given up from the best alternative use of the capacity

Assumptions underlying cost-volume-profit analysis include all of the following , except:
a. All costs can be divided into fixed and variable elements.
b. Total costs are directly proportional to volume over the relevant range.
c. Selling prices are to be unchanged.
d. Volume is the only relevant factor affecting cost.

Choice "b" is correct. Only total variable costs are directly proportional to volume over the relevant range.

fixed costs 450k
fc included 60k in deppreciation for manufacturing equipment.
Units sold at 36 dollars per unit
VC costs 16 per unit
what is breakeven in units?

selling price =36
total vc=16
cm=20
450k/ 20=22500 units

Several surveys point out that most managers use full product costs, including unit fixed-costs and unit
variable costs, in developing cost-based pricing . Which one of the following is least associated with costbased
pricing?
a. Price stability.
b. Price justification.
c. Target pricing .
d. Fixed-cost recovery.

Choice "c" is correct. Target pricing is least associated with (full) cost-based pricing.
Cost-based pricing is associated with:
a. Price stability.
b. Price justification.
d. Fixed-cost recovery

compare abs cost and variable cost.
Which instance is wrong classified as product cost ABS VC
a.MOH yes yes
b.Fixed OH yes no
c. direct Labor yes yes
d.shipping yes yes

Choice "d" is correct. Shipping costs are not a part of product cost under absorption costing. Shipping costs
are variable and would be a part of the calculation of contribution margin.

Costs relevant to a make-or-buy decision include variable labor and variable materials as well as:
a. Depreciation.
b. Factory management costs.
c. Avoidable fixed-costs .
d. Property taxes.

Choice "c" is correct. Costs relevant to a make-or-buy decision include variable labor and variable materials
as well as avoidable fixed costs. Avoidable fixed costs "attach" to a specific decision and are incurred only if
that decision is taken . They are relevant in a marginal analysis.
The following are not relevant to a make-or-buy decision:
a. Depreciation .
b. Factory management costs.
d. Property taxes.

High low method problem
Month orders cost
jan 1200 3120
feb 1300 3185
march 1800 4320
april 1700 3895
what was the variable order filling cost component per order?

4320-3120/(1800-1200)=2.00 per order

High low method problem
Kilos handled cost
80k 160,000
60k 132,000
estimate cost for 75k?

1. use high low method to find per unit variable cost (16-13.2)/(8-6)=1.4per unit
2. plug numbers in to find fixed cost
80k*1.4=112k -160k =48k fixed
3. 75k *1.4=105k+48k=153k

A management accountant performs a linear regression of maintenance cost vs. production using a computer
spreadsheet. The regression output shows an "intercept" value of $322,897. How should the accountant
interpret this information?
a. Y has a value of $322,897 when X equals zero.
b. X has a value of $322,897 when Y equals zero.
c. The residual error of the regression is $322,897.
d. Maintenance cost has an average value of $322,897.

Choice "a" is correct. The intercept value is the point at which the behavior of the independent variable
(production) stated in terms of the dependent variable (cost) intercepts the y axis as follows:

Which of the following forecasting methods relies mostly on judgment?
a. Time series models.
b. Econometric models.
c. Delphi.
d. Regression.

The Delphi method of forecasting involves the use of multiple teams in geographically
remote locations. Information is shared and gathered in a central point and compiled and then redistributed
for comment. The method is highly interpersonal and requires significant judgment.

Pinecrest Co. had variable costs of 25% of sales, and fixed costs of $30,000. Pinecrest's break-even point in
sales dollars was:

Sales =$30,000 / 75%
Sales =$40,000

Which of the following costing methods provide(s) the added benefit of usefulness for external reporting
purposes?
I. Variable.
II. Absorption.

Choice "b" is correct. Absorption costing methods represent generally accepted accounting principles
generally used for the presentation of external financial statements and are, therefore, for the benefit of
external users.

Which of the following terms represents the residual income that remains after the cost of all capital, including
equity capital, has been deducted?
a. Free cash flow.
b. Market value-added.
c. Economic value-added.
d. Net operating capital.

Choice "c" is correct. Economic value-added is a residual income technique used for capital budgeting and
performance evaluation. It represents the residual (excess) income of project earnings in excess of the cost
of capital (including cost of equity) associated with invested capital.

The use of standard costs in the budgeting process signifies that an organization has most likely implemented
a:
a. Flexible budget.
b. Zero-based budget.
c. Static budget.
d. Strategic budget.

Choice "a" is correct. Standard costs usually means that a flexible budget is being used . Standard costs per
unit can be used to adjust the flexible budget to the actual volume.

Actual:
Number of frames made 19,000
Variable oh cost 4,100
foh 22,000
direct labor hours 2,100
Budgeted 20,000 frames
voh 2 per DL hour
fixed oh cost 20,000
DL hours .1 hourper
frame
What is VOH efficiency variance?

(based on standard hours)Budgeted variable OH = 2,100 actual direct labor hours x $2.00 per hour = $4,200
(based on actual hours)Budgeted variable OH = 19,000 frames x .1 hour allowed per frame x $2.00 per hour = $3,800
=400 Unfavorable

Actual:
Number of frames made 19,000
Variable oh cost 4,100
foh 22,000
direct labor hours 2,100
Budgeted 20,000 frames
voh 2 per DL hour
fixed oh cost 20,000
DL hours .1 hourper
frame

The formula for the production volume variance component for overhead variances is computed as
applied overhead minus budgeted overhead based on standard hours. The sole difference between these
two calculated amounts is the application of fixed factory overhead.

Applied Overhead
(Standard variable overhead rate x Standard direct labor hours allowed) + (Standard fixed overhead rate
x Actual Production)
= ($2.00 x.1 x 19,000) + ($1.00 x 19,000) = $22,800
Budgeted overhead based on standard hours
(Standard variable overhead rate x Standard direct labor hours allowed) + (Standard fixed overhead rate
x Standard Production)
= ($2.00 x.1 x 19,000) + ($1.00 x 20,000) = $23,800
Difference: unfavorable variance ($ 1,000)

The standard direct material cost to produce a unit of Lem is 4 meters of material at $2.50 per meter. During
May of the current year, 4,200 meters of material costing $10,080 were purchased and used to produce 1,000
units of Lem. What was the material price variance for May?

(AP - SP) x AQ = Material price variance
[($10,080.,. 4,200) - $2.50) x 4,200
($2.40 - $2.50) x 4,200 = 420
The variance is favorable because the actual cost ($2.40) was less than the standard cost ($2.50)

Variable overhead (4 hours at $B/hour) =$32
Fixed overhead (4 hours at $5'/hour) =$20
Total overhead cost per unit $52
94,000 direct labor hours were worked at a total cost of $940,000.Variable overhead costs were $740,000.

Budgeted variable overhead -
94,000 DL hrs. x $B/hr.
Actual variable overhead
Favorable variance
$ 752,000
740,000
$ 12,000

Which of the following standard costing variances would be least controllable by a production supervisor?
a. Overhead volume.
b. Overhead efficiency.
c. Labor efficiency.
d. Material usage.

Choice "a" is correct. The overhead volume variance is a function of the budgeted amount of overhead based
on standard hours allowed compared with overhead applied , at a predetermined rate, to work-in-process.
The production supervisor has little control over established standard and budgeted amounts.

Performance reports should be formatted and designed to meet organizational needs. In this regard,
performance reports normally include all of the following , except:
a. Exceptional items that are controllable.
b. Specific time horizons.
c. A user focus.
d. Strategic plans.

Choice "d" is correct. Strategic plans are broad-based and long-term in nature. Performance reports are
much more specific and shorter term . A performance report would not normally include strategic plans.

Which one of the following statements regarding selling and administrative budgets is most accurate?
a. Selling and administrative budgets are fixed in nature.
b. Selling and administrative budgets are difficult to allocate by month and are best presented as one
number for the entire year.
c. Selling and administrative budgets should be a certain percentage of sales, and should be developed
using a bottom-up approach.
d. Selling and administrative budgets need to be detailed in order that the key assumptions can be better
understood .

Choice "d" is correct. Selling and administrative budgets, like any budgets, need to be detailed in order that
the key assumptions are better understood .

The cash budget must be prepared before you can complete the:
a. Capital expenditure budget.
b. Forecasted balance sheet.
c. Production budget.
d. Forecasted income statement.

Choice "b" is correct. The cash budget must be prepared before you can complete the forecasted balance
sheet.

Pro forma financial statements are part of the budgeting process. Normally, the last pro forma statement
prepared is:
a. Capital expenditure plan.
b. Income statement.
c. Statement of cost of goods sold.
d. Statement of cash flows.

Choice "d" is correct. The statement of cash flows is usually the last pro forma statement prepared. This is
because everything affects cash. Only when everything else has been estimated can cash flow be projected.

In general, the purchasing manager is held responsible for unfavorable material price variances. Causes of
these variances include all of the following , except:
a. Failure to correctly forecast price increases.
b. Purchasing nonstandard or uneconomical lots.
c. Purchasing from suppliers other than those offering the most favorable terms.
d. Inadequate supervision.

Choice "d" is correct. Inadequate supervision pertains to management of employees, materials, and
equipment by the production manager, and results in material usage variances.

An unfavorable direct labor efficiency variance could be caused by a(n):
a. Unfavorable variable overhead spending variance.
b. Unfavorable material usage variance.
c. Unfavorable fixed overhead volume variance.
d. Favorable variable overhead spending variance.

Choice "b" is correct. An unfavorable direct labor efficiency variance could be caused by an unfavorable
material usage variance. Poor quality materials could mean unfavorable material usage and cause inefficient
labor usage.

Price variances and efficiency variances can be key to the performance measurement within a company. In
evaluating the performance within a company, a material efficiency variance can be caused by all of the
following , except the:
a. Actions of the Purchasing Department.
b. Design of the product.
c. Skill level of the labor force.
d. Sales volume of the product.

Choice "d" is correct. Material efficiency variance cannot be caused by sales volume of the product.
Material efficiency variance can be caused by:
a. Actions of the purchasing department.
b. Design of the product.
c. Skill level of the labor force

The production volume variance is due to:
a. Inefficient or efficient use of direct labor hours.
b. Efficient or inefficient use of variable overhead.
c. Difference from the planned level of the base used for overhead allocation and the actual level achieved .
d. A significant shift in the mix and yield of direct labor relative to the static budget.

Choice "c" is correct. The production volume variance is due to difference from :
1 000 Planned level of the base used for overhead allocation
800 Actual level achieved
200 Production volume variance (difference)

Variable overhead is applied on the basis of standard direct labor hours. If for a given period, the direct labor
efficiency variance is unfavorable, the variable overhead efficiency variance will be:
a. Favorable.
b. Unfavorable.
c. The same amount as the labor efficiency variance.
d. Indeterminable since it is not related to the labor efficiency variance.

Choice "b" is correct. If variable overhead is applied on the basis of standard direct labor hours, and direct
labor efficiency variance is unfavorable, the variable overhead efficiency will (also) be unfavorable.

The difference between the actual amounts and the flexible budget amounts for the actual output achieved is
the:
a. Production volume variance.
b. Flexible budget variance.
c. Sales volume variance.
d. Standard cost variance.

Choice "b" is correct. Flexible budget variance is the difference between the actual amounts and the flexible
budget amounts for the actual output achieved.

The variance in an absorption costing system that measures the departure from the denominator level of
activity that was used to set the fixed overhead rate is the:
a. Efficiency variance.
b. Sales volume variance.
c. Production volume variance.
d. Flexible budget variance.

Choice "c" is correct. Production volume variance is the variance in an absorption costing system that
measures the departure from the denominator level of activity that was used to set the fixed overhead rate.

P Price variance (for OM)
U Usage (quantity) variance (for OM)
R Rate variance (for DL)
E Efficiency variance (for DL)

DA Difference x Actual
DS Difference x Standard
DA Difference x Actual
DS Difference x Standard

Easy Schedule
P Ox A
U Ox S
R Ox A
E Ox S

Virgil Corp. uses a standard cost system. In May, Virgil purchased and used 17,500 pounds of materials at a
cost of $70,000. The materials usage variance was $2,500 unfavorable and the standard materials allowed
for May production was 17,000 pounds. What was the materials' price variance for May?

Plug in the amounts that are known: Enter amount of the Usage variance at $2,500U , compute the amount of
the difference associated with the usage variance (17,000 standard units minus 17,500 actual units) and then
in item (A) algebraically determine the amount of standard costs at $5.00.
Calculate the amount of actual costs per unit based on the information given: $70,000 in total costs divided by
17,500 pounds purchased is $4.00 actual cost per unit. Compute the difference (B) between Standard cost
per unit of $5.00 and actual cost per unit of $4.00 to arrive at a difference of $1.00.

Which of the following budgets provides information for preparation of the owner's equity section of a
budgeted balance sheet?
a. Sales budget.
b. Cash budget.
c. Capital expenditures budget.
d. Budgeted income statement.

Choice "d" is correct. The budgeted income statement produces anticipated accrual basis net income or loss
and is added to beginning owner's equity to generate the owner's equity section of the budgeted balance
sheet.

The difference between standard hours at standard wage rates and actual hours at standard wage rates is
referred to as which of the following types of variances?
a. Labor rate.
b. Labor usage.
c. Direct labor spending.
d. Indirect labor spending.

Choice "b" is correct. The difference between standard hours at standard wage rates and actual hours at
standard rates is the labor usage! efficiency variance

Relevant information for material A follows :
Actual quantity purchased and used
Standard quantity allowed
Actual price
Standard price
6,500 Ibs.
6,000 Ibs.
$3.80
$4.00
What was the direct material quantity variance for material A?

Choice "d" is correct. The direct material quantity variance is $2 ,000 unfavorable and is computed as 500 Ibs.
times the standard price of $4.00 using the PURE DADS memory aid as follows :

Management has reviewed the standard cost variance analysis and is trying to explain an unfavorable labor
efficiency variance of $8,000. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the variance?
a. The new labor contract increased wages.
b. The maintenance of machinery has been inadequate for the last few months.
c. The department manager has chosen to use highly skilled workers.
d. The quality of raw materials has improved greatly.

Choice "b" is correct. If machinery is inadequately maintained, there will be worker downtime for repairs. This
will lead to an unfavorable efficiency variance.

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