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Serous membrane

The epithelial membrane that lines the closed ventral cavities of the body; makes up the pleura and pericardium

Mucous membrane

The epithelial membrane that lines body cavities open to the exterior; found in lining the digestive and respiratory tracts

Cutaneous membrane or skin

Consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Endothelium

Lines blood vessels and the heart

Elastic cartilage

Structural support of the external ear and other structures that need support with flexibility

Hyaline cartilage

Forms much of the fetal skeleton and covers the articular surfaces of long bones

Mesenchyme

Embryonic connective tissue that arises from mesoderm and produces all types of connective tissues

Mesenchyme

Source of new cells in mature connective tissue

Reticular tissue

Forms internal supporting framework of soft organs such as the spleen

True

True or False: The shock-absorbing pads between the vertebrae are formed of fibrocartilage

True

True or False: Brown fat is frequently deposited between the shoulder blades of infants

False; dense regular connective tissue

True or False: Achilles was wounded by damage to the tendon connecting his calf muscles to his heel. This and all tendons are composed mainly of dense irregular connective tissue

True

T or F: Macrophages are found in areolar and lymphatic tissues

True

T or F: Goblet cells are found with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

True

T or F: Epithelial tissues always exhibit polarity; that is, they have a free surface and a basal surface

True

T or F: Simple cuboidal epithelia are usually associated with secretion and absorption

True

T or F: Depending on the functional state of the bladder, transitional epithelium may resemble stratified squamous or stratified cuboidal epithelium

False; sweat and mammary glands

T or F: Stratified cuboidal epithelium is moderately rare in the body and found only in the pharynx, larynx, and anorectal junction

False; mesothelium

T or F: Endothelium covers and lines internal cavities such as the pleural and peritoneal cavities

False; holocrine

T or F: Merocrine glands produce their secretions by accumulating their secretions internally and then rupturing the cell

False

T or F: Salivary glands exhibit simple tubuloalveolar glandular arrangement

False; reticular fibers

T or F: Connective tissues that possess a large quantity of collagen fibers often provide the framework for organs such as the spleen and lymph nodes

False; arrangement of collagen fibers

T or F: The basic difference between dense irregular and dense regular connective tissues is in the amount of elastic fibers and adipose cells present

False; tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock

T or F: A major characteristic of fibrocartilage is its unique amount of flexibility and elasticity

True

T or F: Cartilage tissue tends to heal less rapidly than bone tissue

False; cardiac

T or F: Intercalated discs and striations suggest the presence of skeletal muscle

True

T or F: Smooth muscle cells possess central nuclei but lack striations

False; both

T or F: Most connective tissues have regenerative capacity, while most epithelial tissues do not

True

T or F: Squamous cells are flattened and scalelike when mature

True

T or F: Functions of connective tissues include binding, support, insulation, and protection

False; merocrine

T or F: Sweat glands are apocrine glands

False; ductless

T or F: Endocrine glands are often called ducted glands

True

T or F: Blood is considered a type of connective tissue

False; neurons and glil cells

T or F: Nervous tissue consists mainly of neurons and collagen fibers

blood vessels

Which of the following is not found in the matrix of cartilage but is in bone?
A) live cells
B) lacunae
C) blood vessels
D) organic fibers

Collagen fibers

The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength to absorb shock is because they possess ________.
A) hydroxyapatite crystals
B) collagen fibers
C) reticular fibers
D) elastic fibers

Osseous tissue

The presence of lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels would indicate ________.
A) cartilage tissue
B) fibrocartilaginous tissue
C) osseous tissue
D) areolar tissue

Fibers are not normally visible

Hyaline cartilage is different from elastic or fibrocartilage because ________.
A) it is more vascularized
B) it contains more nuclei
C) fibers are not normally visible
D) it has more elastic fibers

Has a basement membrane

Epithelial tissue ________.
A) is highly vascularized
B) has a basement membrane
C) is usually acellular
D) contains a number of neuron types

Golgi bodies

Which of the following would be of most importance to goblet cells and other glandular epithelium?
A) microvilli
B) Golgi bodies
C) lysosomes
D) multiple nuclei

compound alveolar

Mammary glands exhibit a glandular type called ________.
A) simple tubular
B) compound tubular
C) simple alveolar
D) compound alveolar

dense microvilli

Simple columnar epithelium of the digestive tract is characterized by ________.
A) dense microvilli
B) a rich vascular supply
C) fibroblasts
D) cilia

lines the respiratory tract

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium ________.
A) lines the respiratory tract
B) aids in digestion
C) possesses no goblet cells
D) is not an epithelial classification

simple squamous

A single-celled layer of epithelium that forms the lining of serous membranes is ________.
A) simple transitional
B) simple columnar
C) simple squamous
D) simple cuboidal

usually contains a large amount of matrix

Which statement best describes connective tissue?
A) usually contains a large amount of matrix
B) always arranged in a single layer of cells
C) primarily concerned with secretion
D) usually lines a body cavity

fibers and ground substance

Matrix is ________.
A) cells and fibers
B) fibers and ground substance
C) ground substance and cells
D) composed of all organic compounds

chondrocytes

Cell types likely to be seen in areolar connective tissue include all except: ________.
A) chondrocytes
B) fibroblasts
C) macrophages
D) mast cells

epithelial tissue

The tissue type that arises from all three embryonic germ layers is ________.
A) epithelial tissue
B) connective tissue
C) nervous tissue
D) muscle tissue

collagen

The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is ________.
A) elastic
B) collagen
C) reticular
D) muscle

tissue

Organized groups of cells (plus their intercellular substances) that have a common purpose form a(n) ________.
A) organ
B) tissue
C) organism
D) organ system

elastic cartilage

The shape of the external ear is maintained by ________.
A) adipose tissue
B) elastic cartilage
C) hyaline cartilage
D) fibrocartilage

simple columnar

Inability to absorb digested nutrients and secrete mucus might indicate a disorder in which tissue?
A) simple squamous
B) transitional
C) simple columnar
D) stratified squamous

endocrine

Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as ________.
A) exocrine
B) endocrine
C) sebaceous
D) ceruminous

Endothelium provides a slick surface lining all hollow cardiovascular organs

Which of the following is true about epithelia?
A) Simple epithelia are commonly found in areas of high abrasion.
B) Stratified epithelia are associated with filtration.
C) Endothelium provides a slick surface lining all hollow cardiovascular organs.
D) Pseudostratified epithelia are commonly keratinized

within the cartilage, divide and secrete new matrix

Chondroblasts ________.
A) are mature cartilage cells located in spaces called lacunae
B) within the cartilage, divide and secrete new matrix
C) located deep to the perichondrium divide and secrete new matrix on the internal portions of the cartilage
D) never lose their ability to divide

pseudostratified columnar

________ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.
A)

Stratified cuboidal
B)

Stratified columnar
C)

Transitional
D)

Pseudostratified columnar

stratified squamous

A multilayered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified as ________.
A)

simple cuboidal
B)

simple squamous
C)

transitional
D)

stratified squamous

contains simple or stratified epithelia and a basement membrane

An epithelial membrane ________.
A)

usually involves transitional epithelium
B)

is formed of epithelium and smooth muscle
C)

contains simple or stratified epithelia and a basement membrane
D)

never contains mucus-forming cells

functionally into merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine divisions

Multicellular exocrine glands can be classified ________.
A)

structurally into alveolar and acinar types
B)

structurally into vascular and avascular types
C)

functionally into merocrine, holocrine, and apocrine divisions
D)

functionally into secreting or nonsecreting types

Merocrine glands are not altered by the secretory process

Which of the following is true about the mode of secretion of exocrine glands?
A)

Merocrine glands are not altered by the secretory process.
B)

Apocrine cells are destroyed, then replaced after secretion.
C)

Holocrine cells are slightly damaged by the secretory process, but repair themselves.
D)

These glands are ductless

muscle

Which of these is not considered connective tissue?
A)

cartilage
B)

adipose
C)

muscle
D)

blood

negatively charged polysaccharides

What are glycosaminoglycans?
A)

positively charged proteins
B)

negatively charged proteins
C)

positively charged polysaccharides
D)

negatively charged polysaccharides

highly cellular and well vascularized

Which is true concerning muscle tissue?
A)

highly cellular and well vascularized
B)

cuboidal shape enhances function
C)

contains contractile units made of collagen
D)

is a single-celled tissue

inflammation

The first step in tissue repair involves ________.
A)

replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells
B)

proliferation of fibrous connective tissue
C)

inflammation
D)

formation of scar tissue

The secretory cells of holocrine glands release their product by rupturing

Select the correct statement regarding multicellular exocrine glands.
A)

Compound glands are so called because they are constructed from more than one cell type.
B)

The secretory cells of holocrine glands release their product by rupturing.
C)

Exocrine glands always lack ducts.
D)

Merocrine glands release their secretion by pinching off part of the cell.

ground substance, fibers, and cells

The three main components of connective tissue are ________.
A)

ground substance, fibers, and cells
B)

alveoli, fibrous capsule, and secretory cells
C)

collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers
D)

fibroblasts, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts

Collagen fibers provide high tensile strength

Which of the following statements is true of connective tissue?
A)

Elastin fibers are sometimes called white fibers.
B)

When connective tissue is stretched, collagen gives it the ability to snap back.
C)

Collagen fibers provide high tensile strength.
D)

Reticular fibers form thick, ropelike structures.

"Blast" cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells

Select the correct statement regarding the cells of connective tissue.
A)

Connective tissue does not contain cells.
B)

Connective tissue cells are nondividing.
C)

Chondroblasts are the main cell type of connective tissue proper.
D)

"Blast" cells are undifferentiated, actively dividing cells.

Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable

Select the correct statement regarding tissue repair.
A)

Granulation tissue is highly susceptible to infection.
B)

Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable.
C)

Granulation tissue is another name for a blood clot.
D)

The clot is formed from dried blood and transposed collagen fibers

Stratified epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important

Select the correct statement regarding epithelia.
A)

Simple epithelia form impermeable barriers.
B)

Stratified epithelia are tall, narrow cells.
C)

Stratified epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important.
D)

Pseudostratified epithelia consist of at least two layers of cells stacked on top of one another.

Its primary function is nutrient storage

Select the correct statement regarding adipose tissue.
A)

It is composed mostly of extracellular matrix.
B)

Its primary function is nutrient storage.
C)

Mature adipose cells are highly mitotic.
D)

Most of the cell volume is occupied by the nucleus

goblet cells

________ are commonly found wedged between simple columnar epithelial cells.
A)

Goblet cells
B)

Mast cells
C)

Macrophages
D)

Cilia

The age of the person is a factor in the repair process

Select the correct statement regarding factors that affect the tissue repair process.
A)

The type of tissue injured is not an important factor.
B)

Nutrition does not seem to influence tissue repair.
C)

The age of the person is a factor in the repair process.
D)

The health of an individual does not seem to make any difference in the speed of repair.

stem cells

In adults, new surface epithelial cells and the epithelial cells lining the intestine are derived from _________.
A)

mitotic division of existing epithelial cells
B)

stem cells
C)

underlying epithelial cells
D)

components of the connective tissue

milk

What would be a substance you would expect to find expelled from a compound alveolar gland?
A)

milk
B)

acid
C)

oil
D)

salivary fluid

embryonic

Mesenchymal cells are most commonly found in ________ connective tissue.
A)

areolar
B)

dense regular
C)

embryonic
D)

reticular

Areolar or loose connective

________ tissue forms the framework for the lamina propria of mucous membranes.

lacuna

Osteocytes exist in a tiny void called a ________.

branched

Cardiac muscle tissue is single nucleated, has intercalated discs, and is ________.

Skeletal

________ muscle cells are multinucleated.

Chondrocytes

________ live in the lacuna of cartilage.

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

The uppermost layer of skin is composed of ________.

simple cuboidal

Kidney tubules are composed of ________ epithelium.

transitional

Multiple rows of cells covering a tissue in which the cells are the same shape from the basement membrane to the surfaces would be ________ epithelia.

basement membrane

All epithelial tissue rests upon a ________ composed of connective tissue.

compound tubuloalveolar

The salivary glands are a good example of a ________ exocrine gland.

phagocytosis

Macrophage-like cells are found in many different tissues, and may have specific names that reflect their location or specializations. What is the one functional characteristic common to all macrophage-like cells?

1-4-3-7-6-5-2

All of the following statements refer to events of tissue repair. Put the events in proper numbered order according to the sequence of occurrence. The initial event, the injury, is already indicated as number one.

1. The skin receives a cut that penetrates into the dermis and bleeding begins.
2. Epithelial regeneration is nearly complete.
3. Granulation tissue is formed.
4. Blood clotting occurs and stops the blood flow.
5. The scar retracts.
6. Macrophages engulf and clean away cellular debris.
7. Fibroblasts elaborate connective tissue fibers to span the break.

Adipocytes contain a fat-filled vacuole that can fill or empty, causing the cell to gain or lose volume.

Since mature adipocytes do not divide, how can adults gain weight?

Tendons are composed of dense regular connective tissue, which consists of densely packed, parallel connective tissue fibers. This type of tissue has relatively few cells and vascular supply is poor; consequently, repair is slow. Because of the structure of the tissue, surgical repair can be compared to attempting to suture two bristle brushes together.

Tendon tears or breaks are difficult to repair both physiologically and surgically. Why?

In epithelial tissue the cells are packed together very tightly. Epithelial tissue is avascular. Epithelial tissue has three cell types that cover or line things and make tubes. Epithelial tissue has no fibers and it tends to be polar. Connective tissue has cells spaced far apart and is highly vascular (except cartilage). The cells of connective tissue vary greatly in shape and size. Connective tissue glues other tissues together and has three fiber types. Connective tissue tends to be nonpolar. Connective tissue has a large amount of ground substance; epithelial tissue does not.

How is epithelial tissue the opposite of connective tissue?

Stratified squamous epithelium changes cell shape from the basement membrane to the surface. At the basement membrane the cells tend to be columnar or cuboidal and flatten out as they work their way to the surface. Transitional epithelium has cells that are pretty much the same shape from the basement membrane to the surface. The surface cells are generally the largest cells. The cells change their shape according to the pressure applied.

What is a simple method of telling the difference between stratified squamous epithelium and transitional epithelium?

Blood does not give mechanical support, its matrix is fluid, the cells are loose, the fibers are soluble, it carries nutrients, waste products, and other substances and attaches to several gasses.

How is blood unique among connective tissues?

The ectoderm produces skin, the nervous system, and all tubes opening to the outside. The mesoderm produces muscles and connective tissue. The endoderm produces all internal organs.

What are the primary germ layers during embryonic development and what do they ultimately produce?

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