A&P Chapter 5 Test Bank Questions

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Keratinocytes

The most abundant cells of the epidermis.

Vitamin D

Must be activated in the skin in order to enhance calcium metabolism.

Keratin

The protein found in the epidermis that is responsible for toughening the skin.

Stratum corneum

The layer of the epidermis where the cells are considered protective but nonviable.

Sudoriferous glands

The glands that serve an important function in thermoregulation.

Stratum basale

The layer that contains the mitotic viable cells of the epidermis.

Vellus

Hair that lacks pigment and is often called "immature hair."

True

T or F: The apocrine sweat glands are fairly unimportant in thermoregulation.

False; papillary

T or F: Skin surface markings that reflect points of tight dermal attachment to underlying tissues are called epidermal ridges.

True

T or F: The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis.

True

T or F: The outermost sheath of a hair follicle is the connective tissue root sheath.

False; keratin

T or F: The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.

False; second degree

T or F: Joe just burned himself on a hot pot. A blister forms and the burn is painful. Joe's burn would best be described as a third-degree burn.

False; sebaceous (oil) gland

T or F: Destruction of the matrix of the hair bulb would result in its inability to produce oil.

False; eponychium

T or F: The hyponychium is commonly called the cuticle.

False; capillaries underneath

T or F: The reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the underlying dermis.

True

T or F: During the resting phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies.

True

T or F: The most dangerous skin cancer is cancer of the melanocytes.

False

T or F: The skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore there are no sensory receptors in the skin.

True

T or F: The dermis is rich in blood vessels and nerve fibers.

False; mostly adipose

T or F: The hypodermis is composed of adipose and dense connective tissue.

True

T or F: A physician is often able to detect homeostatic imbalances in the body by observing changes in the skin color.

False

T or F: When an individual is exposed to extremely low air temperatures, the dermal blood vessels will dilate so that blood and heat will be dissipated.

True

T or F: Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.

False; apocrine

T or F: Ceruminous glands are modified merocrine glands.

False; stratum granulosum

T or F: The stratum corneum (outermost layer of skin) is a zone of approximately four layers of viable cells that are able to synthesize proteins that keep the outer layer of skin smooth and soft.

False; dense irregular and areolar connective tissue

T or F: The dermis has a connective tissue and adipose layer that loosely binds the body together.

False; parallel

T or F: Incisions should be made across rather than parallel to cleavage lines produced by collagen fiber bundles.

True

T or F: The pinkish hue of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenated hemoglobin (contained in red blood cells) circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflecting through the epidermis.

True

T or F: Hair growth and density are influenced by hormones, nutrition, and, in some cases, lifestyle.

False; extends through entire dermis

T or F: When a patient is said to have "third-degree burns," this indicates that the patient has burns that cover approximately one-third of the body.

True

T or F: Sweat glands continuously produce small amounts of sweat, even in cooler temperatures.

Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.

Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.
A)

Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant.
B)

Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum.
C)

Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant.
D)

Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.

Porphyria

________ is an inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred and gums degenerated, and may have led to the folklore about vampires.
A)

Porphyria
B)

Decubitus ulcer
C)

Impetigo
D)

Rosacea

corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale

A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?
A)

basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum
B)

basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
C)

granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneum
D)

corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale

external root sheath

The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.
A)

medulla
B)

cortex
C)

external root sheath
D)

cuticle

sebaceous glands

Acne is a disorder associated with ________.
A)

sweat glands
B)

sebaceous glands
C)

Meibomian glands
D)

ceruminous glands

has two layers

The dermis ________.
A)

is an avascular connective tissue layer
B)

has two layers
C)

lacks sensory corpuscles and glands
D)

is where melanocytes are found

arrector pili

Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps?
A)

arrector integument
B)

arrector pili
C)

levator folliculi
D)

arrector folliculi

lucidum

If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot, which cells would be damaged?
A)

granulosum
B)

basale
C)

lucidum
D)

spinosum

Meissner's corpuscles

Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure?
A)

Meissner's corpuscles
B)

Pacinian corpuscles
C)

free nerve endings
D)

Krause's end bulbs

are spidery-shaped cells in contact with cells in the stratum basale

Melanocytes ________.
A)

are spidery-shaped cells in contact with cells in the stratum basale
B)

are involved in the immune system
C)

are involved with the nervous system
D)

work their way up to the surface just like the keratinocytes

Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.

Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?
A)

Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
B)

Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair.
C)

Air bubbles in the hair shaft cause straight hair.
D)

Gray hair is the result of hormonal action altering the chemical composition of melanin.

Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.

Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following is correct?
A)

Eccrine are the most numerous, being found primarily in the axillary regions.
B)

Apocrine glands are larger than eccrine, and empty secretions directly to the surface of the skin.
C)

Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.
D)

Mammary glands are not considered a modified sweat gland.

resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system

Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________.
A)

the dermis providing the major mechanical barrier to chemicals, water, and other external substances
B)

resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
C)

cooling the body by increasing the action of sebaceous glands during high-temperature conditions
D)

epidermal blood vessels serving as a blood reservoir

allow the hair to assist in touch sensation

The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.
A)

serve as a source for new epidermal cells for hair growth after the resting stage has passed
B)

bind the hair root to the dermis
C)

cause apocrine gland secretion into the hair follicle
D)

allow the hair to assist in touch sensation

whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands

15)

Vernix caseosa is a ________.
A)

substance contributing to acne during adolescence
B)

whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands
C)

coat of fine, downy hair on the heads of balding men
D)

cheesy-looking sudoriferous secretion on the skin of newborns

ceruminous

The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax.
A)

eccrine
B)

apocrine
C)

ceruminous
D)

mammary

diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis

Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________.
A)

absorbing materials applied to the surface layer of the skin
B)

utilizing the products of merocrine glands to nourish the epidermis
C)

filtration
D)

diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis

the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber

The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.
A)

it is located just below the epidermis and protects the dermis from shock
B)

it has no delicate nerve endings and can therefore absorb more shock
C)

the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
D)

the cells that make up the hypodermis secrete a protective mucus

four different cell shapes found in five distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function

The epidermis is responsible for protecting the body against invasion of bacteria and other foreign agents primarily because it is composed of ________.
A)

stratified columnar epithelium
B)

three layers of keratinized cells only
C)

four different cell shapes found in five distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function
D)

a tough layer of connective tissue

they produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties

Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because ________.
A)

they produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
B)

they are able to transform from living cells to plasma membranes and still function
C)

they are able to reproduce sporadically as needed
D)

they are a powerful defense against damaging UV rays

accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer

Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.
A)

provide the melanocyte with a protective shield against abrasion
B)

accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer
C)

maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocyte to synthesize melanin granules
D)

maintain the appropriate temperature so the product of the melanocyte will not denature

stratum basale

The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?
A)

stratum corneum
B)

stratum granulosum
C)

stratum basale
D)

stratum lucidum

macrophages called Langerhans' cells

The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function?
A)

cells found in the stratum spinosum
B)

macrophages called Langerhans' cells
C)

keratinocytes, because they are so versatile
D)

Merkel cells

Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.

Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?
A)

Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.
B)

The size and shape of the cells that make up the stratum spinosum, as well as the thick bundles of intermediate filaments.
C)

The dermis is the thickest portion of the skin and water cannot pass through it.
D)

Fat associated with skin prevents water loss.

fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells

The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?
A)

goblet cells, parietal cells, and Kupffer cells
B)

monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytes
C)

fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
D)

osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and epithelial cells

the reticular layer

The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?
A)

the reticular layer
B)

the subcutaneous layer
C)

the hypodermal layer
D)

the papillary layer

The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.

Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn?
A)

Because the pain is acute due to the large number of Meissner's corpuscles.
B)

The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
C)

The blood vessels in the dermis rupture and the blood passes through the tissue, causing "black and blue marks."
D)

The stretching causes the tension lines to disappear.

dermal papillae

The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called:
A)

dermal papillae.
B)

hair follicles.
C)

ceruminous glands.
D)

reticular papillae.

They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.

The design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges?
A)

Every human being has the same pattern of ridges.
B)

They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
C)

Because we are constantly shedding epithelial cells, these ridges are changing daily.
D)

Identical twins do not have the same pattern of ridges.

Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.

Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?
A)

The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin's color.
B)

Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, is synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight.
C)

The skin is protected by increasing the number of Langerhans' cells, which help to activate the immune system.
D)

Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.

The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.

Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison's disease?
A)

The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
B)

Black-and-blue marks become evident for no apparent cause.
C)

The skin appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint.
D)

It is impossible to suggest Addison's disease from an inspection of a person's skin.

specialized phagocytic cell

A Langerhans' cell is a ________.
A)

specialized squamous epithelial cell
B)

specialized phagocytic cell
C)

specialized nerve cell
D)

specialized melanocyte

nutrition and hormones

The most important factors influencing hair growth are ________.
A)

sex and hormones
B)

age and glandular products
C)

the size and number of hair follicles
D)

nutrition and hormones

Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.

Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are?
A)

Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.
B)

Fingernails are derived from osseous tissue.
C)

Fingernails are extensions of the carpal bones.
D)

Fingernails are a separate tissue from the skin, formed from a different embryonic layer.

eccrine and apocrine

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?
A)

sebaceous and merocrine
B)

mammary and ceruminous
C)

eccrine and apocrine
D)

holocrine and mammary

99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C

The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.
A)

primarily uric acid
B)

99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
C)

fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins
D)

metabolic wastes

in the axillary and anogenital area

Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?
A)

in all body regions and buried deep in the dermis
B)

beneath the flexure lines in the body
C)

in the axillary and anogenital area
D)

in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet

by hormones, especially androgens

The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.
A)

by high temperatures
B)

when the air temperature drops
C)

by hormones, especially androgens
D)

as a protective coating when one is swimming

It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism

In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?
A)

It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
B)

It aids in the transport of materials throughout the body.
C)

The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy.
D)

It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.

by using the "rule of nines"; used to determine the total percentage of area burned for each major section of the body

Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?
A)

by measuring urinary output and fluid intake
B)

by observing the tissues that are usually moist
C)

through blood analysis
D)

by using the "rule of nines"

catastrophic fluid loss

What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?
A)

infection
B)

catastrophic fluid loss
C)

unbearable pain
D)

loss of immune function

male hormones

Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ________.
A)

age
B)

size
C)

weight
D)

male hormones

eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months

Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.
A)

they grow much slower
B)

eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
C)

the vascular supply of the eyebrow follicle is one-tenth that of the head hair follicle
D)

hormones in the eyebrow follicle switch the growth off after it has reached a predetermined length

seborrhea

Cradle cap in infants is called ________.

lunula

The white crescent portion of the nail is called the ________.

granulosum

The layer of the epidermis immediately under the stratum lucidum in thick skin is the stratum ________.

arrector pili

The ________ are the small muscles located in the dermis that cause goose bumps.

Addison's

A summertime golden bronze tan may not be a tan at all; especially if the skin appears almost metallic bronze, it may be the result of ________ disease.

terminal

The coarse hair of the eyebrows and scalp is called ________ hair.

Second-degree

________ burns injure the epidermis and the upper regions of the dermis.

Melanocytes

________ are pigment-producing cells in the epidermis.

lucidium

The only place you will find stratum ________ is in the skin that covers the palms, fingertips, and soles of the feet.

papillary

The dermis is composed of the reticular and ________ layers.

Stressors such as acutely high fever, surgery, severe emotional trauma; drugs such as antidepressants and chemotherapy drugs; burns and radiation; and a protein-deficient diet can cause hair loss or thinning.

There are several reasons other than genetics for hair loss. Identify some of these other factors.

Keratinocyte enzymes can neutralize carcinogens that penetrate the epidermis. Keratinocytes are also able to convert topical steroid hormones to a powerful anti-inflammatory drug.

In addition to the synthesis of vitamin D, keratinocytes are able to carry out some other biologically important functions. Name at least two of these other functions.

Burns are classified according to their severity or depth. For example, in first-degree burns, only the epidermis is damaged; in second degree burns, the epidermis and upper dermis are damaged; in third degree burns, there is widespread damage of epidermis and dermis.

How are burns classified? Give an example.

Pale, fine body hair associated with newborn children, women, and bald men.

What are vellus hairs?

It appears to be genetically determined and sex-linked, and is possibly caused by a delayed-action gene that responds to DHT and alters normal metabolism.

Balding men have tried all kinds of remedies, including hair transplants, to restore their lost locks. Explain the cause of male pattern baldness.

Sweat is mostly an odorless watery secretion produced by eccrine and apocrine glands. The odor usually arises due to the metabolic activities of bacteria on the surface of the skin.

Billions of consumer dollars are spent for deodorants and antiperspirants each year. Explain the production of body odors frequently associated with axillary skin.

Large losses of skin, as with severe burn injuries, allow excessive fluid loss and infection. Skin grafting or "synthetic skin" applications are usually necessary.

What complications might be anticipated from the loss of large areas of skin surfaces?

1. Protection against abrasion.
2. Protection from the sun's radiation.
3. Involved in the immune system. First line of defense.
4. Protection from water loss.
5. Protection from heat loss.
6. Covers the bodyinterphase with the outside.
7. Sensory perception.

What are six of the functions of the epidermis?

Stratum corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, and basale.

Name the layers of the epidermis in order from the surface down.

1. Feed and oxygenate the epidermis.
2. Provide touch and pain receptors.
3. Form the underlying foundation for ridges of the hands and toes.

What are the functions of the papillary layer of the skin?

Dermicidin has an effect on many bacteria but not all. A low pH slows the bacteria's ability to reproduce and grow. The slowing allows the dermicidin more time to work and allows macrophages to work as well.

If eccrine sweat glands produce dermicidin, why produce a fluid with a pH of 4-6?

1. eccrine
2. apocrine
3. ceruminous
4. mammary

Name the four kinds of sudoriferous glands.

The skin proper must retain flexibility to give up excess body heat, so it must not function as a heat barrier. The hypodermis contains adipose which acts as an insulator. With this set up, extra blood (and heat) can be shunted above the hypodermis when heat loss is desirable.

Why is skin not considered a heat barrier for the body?

Good because the sweat and evaporating of the sweat causes cooling of the body. Bad because excessive water and salt loss may occur. Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may follow.

Why is profuse sweating on a hot day good, and yet a potential problem?

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