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Laudon 5, 6, 11, 7, 8 Motiwalla 2, 3

Database

Collection of relates files containing records on people places or things

Entity

Generalized category representing person place thing on which we store and maintain information

Attributes

Specific characteristics of each entity

Regional database

Organize data into 2D tables (relations) with columns and rows

Fields

store data representing an attribute

Key field

uniquely identifies each record

Primary Key

One field in each table, cannot be duplicated, provides unique identifier for all information in any row

Entity-relationship diagram

Used to clarify table relationships in relational database

Normalization

Process of streamlining complex gorups of data to: mmimize redundant data elements, minimize awkward many-to- many relationships, and increase stability and flexiblity

Referential integrity rules

Used by relationsal databases to ensure that relationships between couples tables remain constant

DBMS

Specific type of software for creating, storing, organizing, and accessing data from a database
Ex. Microsoft Access, DB2, Oracle

Logical View

how end uses view data

Physical view

how data are actually structured and organized

Data definition capabilities

Specify structure of content of database

Data dictionary

Automated or manual file storing definitions of data elements and their characteristics

Object oriented DBMS

Stores data and procedures that act on those data as objects to be retireved and shared

Data warehouse

Database that stores current and historical data that may be of interest to decision makers

Datamart

subset of data warehouses that is highly focused and isolated for a specific population of users

Business intelligence

tools for consolidating analyzing and providing access to large amounts of data to improve decision making

OLAP

Online Analytically Processing --
Supports multidimensional data analysis enabling users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions

Data mining

Finds hidden patterns and relationships in large database and infers rules from them to predict future behavior

Use of data mining

analyzing patterns in customer data for one-to-one marketing campaigns or for identifying profitable customers

Convergence

Telephone networks and computer networks converging into single digital network using internet standards

Broadband

More than 60% US internet users have broadband

Broadband Wireless

Voice and data communication aas well as internet access are increasingly taking place over broadband wireless platforms

Routers

Device used to route packets of data through different networks, ensuring that data sent gets to the correct address

Components can Include

100s of Local Area networks(LANs) linked to firmwide corporate network, Various powerful servers

The internet

is the largest implementation of Client'server computing

Packet Switching

Method of slicing digital messages into packets, sending packets along different communication paths as they become available

Protocols

rules that govern transmission of information between two points

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol- Common worldwide standard that is basis for internet

Four Layers, TCP/IP

Application layer
Transport
Internet
Network Interface

Modem network

Translates digital signals into analog form

LANs

Campus area networks
Peer to peer
topologies

Physical Transmission media

Twisted wire (modems)
Coaxial Cable
Fiber optics and optical networks
Wireless transmission media and devices
Transmission speed

HTML

hypertext Markup Language
Formats documents for display on web

HTTP

Hypertext transfer protocol
Communications standard used for transferring web pages

URLs

Uniform Resource Locators
Addresses of Web pages

Web servers

Software for locating and managing Web pages

Web 2.0

second generation interactive internet based services enabling people to collaborate share info and create new services online

RSS

(Really Simple Syndication)
syndicates web content so aggregator software can pull content for use in another setting or viewing later`

Intranets

Use exisiting network infrastructure with internet connectivity standards software developed for the web

Extranets

Allow authorized vendors and customers access to an internal intranet

Bluetooth

Links up to 8 devices, low power, radiobased

RFID

Radio frequency identification
Use tiny tags with embedded microchips containing data about an item and location

Four steps to building ISYS

1.define problem
2.develop solutions
3.chooose solution
4.implement solution

Four step process to Prototype

1.Identify basic requirements
2.develop prototype
3.use prototype
4.revise prototype

RAD

Rapid application development
Creating workable systems in a very short period of time

JAD

Joint application design
End users and ISYS specialists working together on design

CASE

Computer Aided Software Engineering Provides software tools to automate the previously described methodologies

Security

Policies, procedures, and technical measures used to prevent unauthorized access alteration theft or physical damage to information systems

Controls

Methods, policies, and organizational procedures that safety of organization's assets.

Hardware Problems

Breakdowns, configuration errors, damage fro improper use or crime

Software Problems

Programming errors, installation errors, unauthorized changes

Wireless Security Challenges

Radio frequency bands easy to scan, SSIDs, Wardriving, WEP

Viruses

Rogue software program that attaches itself to other software programs or data files in order to be executed

Worms

Independent computer programs that copy themselves form one computer to other computers over a network

Trojan horses

Software program that appears to be benign but then does something other than expected

Spyware

Small programs install themselves surreptitously on computers to monitor use web surfing activity and serve up advertising

key loggers

record every kestroke on computer to steal serial numbers, passwors, launch internet attacks

Spoofing

Misrepresenting oneself by using fake email addresses/website or masquerading as someone else

Sniffer

Eavesdropping program that monitors information traveling over network

DoS attacks

Denial of service attacks
--Flooding server with thousands of false requests to crash the netwrok

DDoS attacks

Distributed denial of service attacks
--Use of numeros computers to launch a Dos

Pharming

Redirects users to a bogus webpage even when individual types correct web page address into the browser

Patches

vendors release small pieces of software to repair flaws

Application Controls

specific controls unique to each computerized application such as payroll or order processing

Authorization management systems

establish where and when a user is permitted to access certain parts of a web site or corporate database

Firewall

Combination of hardware and software that precents unauthorized users from accessing private networks

WEP security can be improved by:

Activating it, assigning unique name to network's SSID, Using it with a VPN technology

Encryption

Transforming text or data into cipher text that cannot be read by unintended recipents

Two methods of encryption

Symmetric= sender and reciever use single shared key
Public key encryption= uses public and private keys, sender encrypts message with recipient's public key, then recipient dycrypts

ERP

Suite of integrated software modules and a common central database

Just in time strategy

Components arrive as they are needed

Safety stock

buffer for lack of flxibility in supply chain

Bullwhip effect

information about product demand gets distorted as it passes from one entity to next across supply chain

Intranet

To improve coordination among internal supply chain processes

Extranets

to coordinate supply chain processes shared with their business partners

Pushed based model (build to stock)

Supply Chain Management systems
Schedules absed on best guesses of demand

Pul BAsed Model (demand-Driven)

Supply Chain Management systems
Customer orders trugger events in supply chian

Sequential Supply Chains

Supply Chain Management systems
Information and materials flow sequentially from company to company

Concurrent Supply Chains

Supply Chain Management systems
Information flows in many directions simulatneously among members of a supply chain network

Business value of supply chain Management

Match supply to inventory
reduce inventory levels
Improve delivery service
speed product time to market
Use assets more effectively

CRM systems

Customer relationship management systems
Capture and integrate customers data from all over the organization, Consolidate and analyxe customer data
--Also Partner(PRM) and Employee (ERM)

Operational CRM

Customer facing applications usch as sales force automation call center and customer service support and marketing automation

Analytical CRM

Analyzes customer data output from operational CRM applications

Churn Rate

Number of customers who stop using or purchasing products or services form a company

Service plaatform

integrates multiple applications to deliver a seamless experience for all parties

Silos

compartmentalized operating units isolated from their environment

horizontal Silos

(POSDCORB) (Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting, and Budgeting)

Resource Categorization _Functional Model

Step 1:
Insitiuting IT support for an integrated systems environment is necessary to avoid support and maintenance problems

Compliance and standards _Functional Model

Step 2:
Develop a single sign on policy because all employees and external partners will need access to an integrated system from anywhere anytime

Legacy Systems support _Functional Model

Step 3:
Develop a policy in support of older legacy applications

Middleware tools _Functional Model

Step 4:
essential for integration in the short term if existing applications must be used by the organization

Vertical Silos

divide roles in hierarchial layers from strategic planning to management control and operation control
(Strategic Management, Tactical Management, Functional Operations)

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