The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts; the ______nervous system ( which prepare the body for emergency action), and the_______nervous system (Which calms the body).
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for preparing the body for intense, vigorous, emergency activity
Sympathetic nervous system
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for preparing the body for fight behavior is called the :
Sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is to______ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to_______
Recoding of neuronal response in the prefrontal cortex while viewing pleasant or unpleasant scenes revealed that:
The brain can categorize events as pleasant or unpleasant without feedback from the body.
People with pure autonomic failure have_______changes in their heart rate and other organs responses; they usually report ____intensity of emotions
Which of the following is characterized by extreme physiological arousal?
When people were forced to smile, by clenching a pen between their teeth, how do they rate a cartoon they were reading?
Funnier than if they were not forced to smile.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the findings of the James=Lange theor of emotions
If you don't feel like smiling, then smile.
A search for the happiness center in the brain is unlikely to be successful because?
brain areas associated with particular emotions vary considerably
The area that is activated by feeling disgusted is the same area of the brain responsible for
Damage to the insular cortex results in diminished ability to experienec and recognize
The Behavioral Inhibition System is associated with:
increased attention and arousal, decreased action, and fear of disgust.
Based on studies with individuals who have had prefrontal cortex damage, emotions seemed to be important for:
making moral decisions
If a hamster is primed for a fight, increased activit will most likely be found:
In the corticomedial amygdala
Under what circumstances do the criminal behaviors resemble each other more than dizygotic twins?
One study found that boys who were aggressive at age 3 tended to be:
aggressive when tested at a later age.
A study of conduct disorders and aggressive behavior in adopted children supported the generalization that:
behaviors depend on a combination of genes adn environment, not on either one alone
Of the following choices, the most likely explanation for how testosterone may be associated with violent behavior is that it:
may induce greater attention to situation of aggression and conflict
Which group of humans tends to be the most violent
males 15-25 years old
In one study, young women who received injections of testosterone were more likely to have an usual increase in heart rate when viewing angry faces. This suggest that:
testosterone may induce people to respond more vigorously in aggressive situations.
If a monkey with low serotonin turnover survives, they are more likely to:
have dominant status
Which of the following has been shown to be effective in suppressing violent behavior in a person who is prone to outbursts of unprovoked violent attack.
destruction of part of the amygdala
Destruction of part of the amygdala has been found to effective in treating people with which:
intermittent explosive disorder
Increases the aggressive behavior are associated with a drop in:
The concentration of 5-HIAA in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine provides an estimate of: serotonin turnover
To estimate the amount of serotonin turnover in the brain, investigators measure the amount of ______ in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid
According to a number of animal studies, under which of the following conditions is the probability of violent behavior greatest
low serotonin turnover
If male mice show a decrease in serotonin turnover in response to social isolation, what other behavior can one expect?
an increase in aggressive behavior
Which mice showed a decrease in serotonin turnover in response to social isolation?
In a study of serotonin turnover in male monkeys, it was found that those with:
low levels were usually dead by the age 6
Many studies have found that violent criminals and arsonists released from prison had a greater probability of committing other violent crimes if they:
had lower than normal serotonin turnover.
One study found that many young men showed an increase in aggressive behavior a few hours after eating a diet
low in tryptophan and high in phenylalanine.
Why do certain people suspect that a diet high in corn may lead to an increase in aggressive behavior?
Corn is low in tryptophan and high in phenylalanine.
If you were to inactivate the enzyme monoamine oxidase, aggressive behaviors would theoretically:
A person with a history of depression would most likely react to a diet low in tryptophan by becoming:
According to one hypothesis, if serotonin is released during aggressive behavior, then individuals with low serotonin release are more aggressive because of:
increased serotonin receptor sensitivity
After a loud noise, information travels from the medulla to the ____, and then to the neck muscles.
To measure fear or anxiety in both humans and nonhumans, investigators measure variations in an individual's:
In people suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, the startle response is:
generally stronger than the other people
What area of the brain seems to be a key area for learned fears?
Damage to the amygdala impairs:
Output from the amygdala to the ____ modifies approach and avoidance responses
The amygdala send axons to the ____, which in turn sends axons to the pons to control the startle reflex
Animals with damage to the amygdala:
neither learn new fears nor retain previously learned fears.
Amygdala activation to angry and fearful expressions suggests that the amygdala responds most strongly:
when emotional interpretation is unclear.
According to fMRI and similar methods, the human amygdala responds most strongly when people are looking at:
When asked to draw pictures expressing different emotions, which emotion would cause the most difficulty for a person with Urbach-Wiethe disease?
Increased fear, anxiety, or panic is related to increased activity of ____ and decreased activity of ____.
The enhanced startle reflex in the presence of a feared stimulus would be reduced by all of the following methods EXCEPT:
stimulating CCK receptors in the amygdala
Which of the following conditions most resembles the effects of amygdala damage?
The GABA-A receptor complex controls the flow of which ion across the membrane?
A benzodiazepine molecule attaches to its receptor and affects the cell by:
increasing receptors response to GABA
Endozepines attach to the same binding sites as ____ and affect the receptors in the ____ way.
Which of the following increases anxiety?
A combination of benzodiazepines and alcohol should be avoided because:
each magnifies the effects of the other.
Stress activates two systems. One is the:
HPA axis, which becomes increasingly important with prolonged stressors.
An autoimmune disease occurs when:
the immune system attacks the body's normal cells.
Leukocytes identify intruder cells by their:
A leukocyte attacks when it finds a cell with foreign:
Receiving a flu vaccination protects you from getting the flu by:
stimulating production of antibodies against the flu virus.
Which type of leukocyte matures in the bone marrow?
Proteins that circulate in the blood, specifically attaching to one kind of antigen are:
What type of leukocyte matures in the thymus gland?
Which type of leukocyte matures in the bone marrow and produces antibodies to attack specific targets?
Which type of leukocyte destroys tumor cells and cells infected with viruses?
natural killer cells
One of the main differences between natural killer cells and T cells is that natural killer cells:
attack several kinds of intruders.
The immune system's way of telling the brain that the body is ill is by way of:
The field of study concerned with how the nervous system interacts with the immune system is known as:
What did researchers find in Antarctic research scientists who spent a 9-month period of social isolation in the cold and dark?
T cell functioning decreased by about half
Which is NOT a typical effect of chronic stress?
strengthened immune system
What is one effect of chronic stress?
a decrease in the number of certain leukocytes
Which is more characteristic of the body's response to chronic stress than the response to short-term stress?
secretions of cortisol
Chronically high cortisol levels can be harmful to an individual by:
increasing the vulnerability of the hippocampus.
High cortisol levels increase the likelihood that hippocampal cells will be:
vulnerable to damage by toxins.
Early stressful experiences in rats may lead to ____ in adulthood.
decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus
PTSD victims tend to have a ____ hippocampus, and ____ cortisol levels.
Among people who had been in sever automobile accidents, the ones who develop PTSD are more likely to have:
a smaller than avg hippocampus
Among identical twins, if one of them has PTSD, then the other is also likely to have a
Having a small hippocampus may increase one's vulnerability to:
What kind of emotion, and which kind of sensation, depend most heavily on the insula?
The insula is important for disgust and taste
What are the contributions of the right hemisphere to emotional behaviors and interpreting other people's emotions
Activation of the right hemisphere is associated with withdrawal from events and social contact. The right hemisphere is also more specialized than the left for interpreting other people's
If brain damage impairs someone's emotions, what happens to the person's decision making?
After brain damage that impairs emotions, people make impulsive decisions, evidently because they do not quickly imagine how bad a poor decision might make them feel.