Bradley Full Final

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c

All of the following invaded the lands of the Roman Empire EXCEPT:

A. Angles and Saxons.
B. Ostrogoths.
C. Greeks.
D. Visigoths.

d

The longest lasting of the Germanic kingdoms established after the fall of Rome, were the _________, whose first king was Clovis.

A. Ostrogoths
B. Visigoths
C. Vandals
D. Franks

c

Gregory I (590-604), also known as Gregory the Great,

A. was crowned by Pope Leo as emperor of Paris.
B. converted Clovis to Islam.
C. strengthened the power of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church.
D. invaded kingdoms to the north, creating an empire nearly as large as the Roman Empire.

a

Saint Benedict founded a community of monks that

A. established the basic form of monasticism in the Catholic Church.
B. grew large enough to print their own money.
C. became infamous for their idle and lustful lifestyle.
D. tortured and killed those who would not convert to Christianity.

b

__________ started the Carolingian Renaissance.

A. Clovis
B. Charlemagne
C. Gregory I
D. Charles Martel

b

The Carolingian Renaissance was

A. an artistic movement.
B. a revival of learning and culture.
C. a theatrical troupe.
D. the rewriting of history by peasants.

d

All of the following invaded Europe following the Carolingian Renaissance EXCEPT:

A. Magyars
B. Muslims
C. Vikings
D. Greeks

b

What is the primary reason feudalism emerged in Europe?

A. The Germanic tribes imposed it on their conquered peoples.
B. People sought protection from invaders and turned to local landed aristocrats.
C. The Catholic Church imposed it on society, as the best way for stability.
D. None of these are correct.

d

The lord-vassal relationship did all of the following EXCEPT

A. NOT imply a sense of servitude.
B. require military service.
C. grant the vassal land.
D. involve salary for the vassal.

d

Owners of large landed estates did NOT include

A. barons.
B. dukes.
C. kings.
D. serfs.

a

__________ was a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold.

A. Chivalry
B. The Book of the Dead
C. The fief
D. Vassalage

b

While the lord was away at war or court, management of his estate fell to

A. his most trusted vassal.
B. the lady of the castle.
C. the bishop of the nearest church.
D. a serf which he chose prior to his departure.

d

In 1066, William of Normandy

A. tried to invade England, but was soundly defeated by King Harold's forces.
B. was forced to sign the Magna Carta.
C. called for the death of Thomas Becket.
D. invaded England, soundly defeating King Harold's forces at the Battle of Hastings.

c

Which of the following INCORRECTLY matches the English monarch with a major achievement/event during his reign?

A. King Harold - Normans invade and take over England
B. King Henry II - helps to establish common law
C. King Paul - signs the Magna Carta
D. King Edward I - parliament emerges

c

Philip II Augustus greatly increased the power of the French monarchy by

A. forming the French parliament by meeting with representatives of the three estates.
B. expanding the royal mint.
C. waging war on the rulers of England and gaining control of Normandy, Maine, Anjou and Aquitaine.
D. defeating King Willie at the Battle of Hastings.

c

In return for protecting the pope, Otto I was

A. granted land in Normandy.
B. linked to Byzantium.
C. crowned Roman emperor.
D. converted to Christianity.

b

In 1054, the first major split, or schism, appeared in the Christian Church. It resulted in which two different churches?

A. the Orthodox Church, the Protestant Church
B. the Orthodox Church, the Catholic Church
C. the Catholic Church, the Protestant Church
D. the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church

c

The push for the Crusades came when

A. Saladin seized Makkah.
B. the plague devastated Europe.
C. Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asked for aid.
D. Constantinople was sacked in 1204.

b

The Venetian leaders of the Fourth Crusade

A. led a "children's crusade" that ended with victory.
B. saw an opportunity to neutralize the Byzantine Empire and diverted their army to Constantinople.
C. massacred the inhabitants of Cairo, including women and children.
D. were forced to return to Europe after half of their forces perished in storms at sea.

d

Which of the following is NOT one of the effects of the Crusades?

A. They weakened the Byzantine Empire, eventually leading to its downfall.
B. They benefited the Italian port cities.
C. They weakened the institution of serfdom in Europe.
D. They insured Christian domination of the Holy Land.

a

A peasants daily activities in the Middle Ages largely revolved around what?

A. the seasons
B. the cycle of the moon
C. the day of the week
D. None of these are correct.

b

In the High Middle Ages, the revival of trade, naturally lead to the growth of

A. political power for serfs.
B. cities.
C. the strength of monarchies.
D. a reduction of rights for the nobility.

b

Which of the following is NOT part of the guild training system?

A. master
B. vassal
C. journeyman
D. apprentice

a

In the High Middle Ages, a struggle began between the pope and political leaders over what?

A. who had the right to appoint church officials
B. who chose the religion of a people in a certain territory
C. the right of a king to get married and divorced
D. who got to choose what religious orders were allowed in a territory

a

Who formed the Franciscan Order?

A. Francis of Assisi
B. Dominic de Guzman
C. Hildegard of Bingen
D. Pope Innocent III

b

Which of the following is NOT one of the new religious orders that arose in the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD)?

A. the Cistercians
B. the Jesuits
C. the Franciscans
D. the Dominicans

a

The High Middle Ages saw the emergence of what type of education.

A. universities
B. public education
C. private tutors
D. All of these are correct.

c

The chief task of __________ was to harmonize Christian teachings with the works of Greek philsophers.

A. Saint Fracis of Assisi
B. the chanson de geste
C. scholasticism
D. algebra

b

In the High Middle Ages, the vernacular language came to replace what language in most texts?

A. Greek
B. Latin
C. Hebrew
D. English

b

All of the following are examples of extreme reactions to the Black Death EXCEPT?

A. Wealthy people fleeing to the countryside estates to avoid exposure.
B. A rejection of the authority of the Roman Catholic Church.
C. A cultural preoccupation with death.
D. Attacks on Jews who many accused of causing the plague.

b

In response to the Black Death:

A. governments ended most barriers to international trade.
B. the wages of peasant laborers increased.
C. prices increased dramatically.
D. the nobility were able to increase their incomes.

c

Which two countries fought in the Hundred Year's War?

A. Germany and France
B. Germany and England
C. France and England
D. England and Italy

d

During the Hundred Years' War, England's significant innovation was the use of:

A. spies amongst the French troops.
B. secret diplomacy involving the papacy.
C. heavily armored knights.
D. foot soldiers with long bows.

a

The conflict between Boniface VIII and King Philip IV revolved around what issue?

A. Who was supreme, the church or the state?
B. How should popes be elected?
C. Do citizens of a state have to be of the same religion as its ruler?
D. All of these are correct.

a

During the 14th century, the residency of the popes in Avignon:

A. increased antipapal sentiment.
B. increased respect for the papacy.
C. ended calls for reformation within the Church.
D. increased German influence among the cardinals.

a

The Renaissance started in what (modern-day) European country?

A. Italy
B. France
C. Germany
D. England

a

Of what was the Renaissance a "rebirth?"

A. art and learning
B. Christian devotion
C. chivalry and tournaments
D. all of these are correct

a

In what way did Leonardo da Vinci represent the "Renaissance Man"?

A. He was a painter, sculptor, inventor and scientist.
B. He lived in Italy during the 1500s.
C. He used perspective in all of his drawings and paintings.
D. He was a devout Catholic.

c

In The Prince, Machiavelli parted ways with earlier political theorists by:

A. saying the justification for power lay in its contribution to the public good.
B. rejecting the realistic approach to politics favored by contemporary theorists.
C. arguing that politics have nothing to do with morality.
D. arguing that greatness in a statesman is based on his Christian virtue.

a

Thes study of classical texts caused humanists to focus on which subject?

A. human potential and achievements
B. an understanding of early Christianity
C. Roman law and government
D. Islamic texts

d

Humanist educators of the Renaissance stressed all of the following EXCEPT

A. liberal arts.
B. rhetoric (public speaking)
C. physical education
D. practical tool skills

c

The invention of the printing press in Europe did all of the following EXCEPT:

A. faciliate the spread of new ideas.
B. increase the literacy rates of Europeans.
C. increase the power of the Catholic Church.
D. encourage the development of scholarly research.

b

Paintings and sculptures of the Renaissance were more

A. abstract.
B. realistic.
C. Chinese-like.
D. simple.

c

The frescoes painted by _________ have long been regarded as the first masterpieces of early Renaissance art.

A. Michelangelo
B. Pablo Picasso
C. Masaccio
D. Filippo Brunelleschi

a

All of the following are associated with painting during the High Renaissance EXCEPT:

A. Machiavelli
B. Raphael
C. Leonardo da Vinci
D. Michelangelo

c

Who were Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More?

A. German painters
B. patrons of the arts
C. Christian humanists
D. none of these

b

What was the goal of the early Christian Humanists?

A. to create a new church
B. to reform the Catholic Church
C. to increase the influence of the Catholic Church in daily life
D. to make the Catholic Church more dogmatic (i.e. more rules)

a

Who is credited with starting the Protestant Reformation?

A. Martin Luther
B. King Henry VIII
C. John Calvin
D. Ulrich Zwingli

b

Martin Luther protested the practice of selling indulgences. What was that practice?

A. Clergy members bought indulgences to reach higher offices.
B. The Church told the people that buying indulgences was a way to earn a way to heaven.
C. Indulgences permitted priests to marry and have children.
D. Indulgences allowed people the freedom to miss mass.

b

The Protestant Reformation is built upon the foundation of:

A. regular confession of sin.
B. justification by faith and biblical authority.
C. good works and priestly authority.
D. the authority of the Church.

c

In the Peasants' War of the mid-1520s, Martin Luther:

A. admired the peasants for challenging unjust rule.
B. supported the peasants in their uprising against their lords.
C. called on German lords to restore order by any means necessary.
D. condemned the violent response of the German princes.

c

Which of the following was NOT one of the problems/distractions Charles V faced in trying to stop Martin Luther?

A. the advance of the Ottoman Turks through southeastern Europe
B. battles with the French monarchy
C. the pope's alliance with Luther
D. the spread of Luther's ideas among German princes

c

Which of the following is NOT one of the new ideas/beliefs that came out of the Protestant Reformation?

A. adult baptism
B. predestination
C. indulgences
D. justification through faith alone

c

. Henry VIII:

A. abolished the Church of England.
B. always wanted his dauther Elizabeth to rule England.
C. refused to recognize the supremacy of the pope.
D. maintained a strong friendship with Thomas More.

d

The final decrees of the Council of Trent:

A. approved a "Protestant" doctrine of justification.
B. let Catholics decide individually whether to accept transubstantiation.
C. called for the establishment of Catholic seminaries in all Protestant lands.
D. made compromise with Protestants virtually impossible.

a

Who was the important Catholic Reformer who founded the Jesuit order?

A. Ignatius of Loyola
B. Pope Paul III
C. Katarina Zell
D. Martin Luther

a

The French Wars of Religion were primarily between which two groups?

A. Catholics, Huguenots (French Calvinists)
B. Catholics, Orthodox Christians
C. Catholics, Mulsims
D. Catholics, Lutherans

d

Among the earliest and most consistent goals of Spain's King Philip II was a:

A. desire to spread religious toleration throughout all of his possessions.
B. search for a body of competent advisors to supervise his overseas possessions.
C. wish to marry Elizabeth of England and consolidate his kingdom with hers.
D. firm determination to keep all his subjects Catholic.

a

The ___________ ensured England would remain a Protestant country.

A. defeat of the Spanish Armada
B. organization of the Society of Jesus
C. death of Philip II
D. reforms of the Council of Trent

d

At the end of the sixteenth century, the Protestant Reformation:

A. was still driven by Lutheranism.
B. allowed Christians of good faith to work together despite denominational differences.
C. had destroyed the Catholic Church.
D. had spawned religious reform and violent conflicts.

c

Europeans were motivated by several things to go on voyages of discovery and exploration. Which of the following is generally NOT considered one of those things?

A. God
B. glory
C. freedom
D. gold

b

Which of the following was NOT a key determining factor in explaining how/why Europeans were able to embark on voyages of discovery?

A. a dramatic improvement in ship design and building
B. the weaknesses of European monarchies
C. improved knowledge of wind patterns in the oceans
D. a desire to spread Christianity to heathen peoples

c

Bartholomeu Dias and Vasco de Gama were the first European sailors to sail around what continent?

A. South America
B. North America
C. Africa
D. Europe

a

The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Americas between which two European powers?

A. Spain and Portugal
B. Spain and France
C. Spain and England
D. Portugal and England

b

Hernan Cortes conquered the __________ empire; Francisco Pizarro conquered the __________ empire.

A. Aztec, Mayan
B. Aztec, Incan
C. Mayan, Incan
D. Anasazi, Incan

a

The Spanish colonial system of encomienda made possible the

A. virtual enslavement of the Native American populations.
B. importation of African slaves to compensate for Indians lost to diseases.
C. fair treatment of Native American laborers.
D. survival of Indian works of art and literature.

b

The triangular trade involved the exchange of manufactured goods, slaves and raw materials and connected:

A. Europe, Asia and the Americas
B. Europe, Africa and the Americas
C. North America, Europe and Central America
D. North America, the Caribbean and Africa

a

The high mortality rate for Africans being brought to America was due in part to:

A. inhumane methods of transoceanic transportation.
B. exposure to tropical diseases.
C. suicides by those who realized their fate.
D. infections incurred from wounds in wars they had just fought and lost.

b

Which European nation eventually came to dominate the Indian subcontinent?

A. France
B. England
C. Holland (the Dutch)
D. Spain

b

Massive plantations in the Caribbean Islands (the West Indies) were set up by Europeans to grow what important crop?

A. cotton
B. sugar(cane)
C. coffee
D. wheat

c

Named after one of Europe's early explorers, what was the term for the exchange of crops, animals, diseases, etc. between the New World and Europe?

A. the Dias Exchange
B. the American Exchange
C. the Columbian Exchange
D. the Pizarro Exchange

d

Which of the following is NOT one of the effects European exploration and expansion had on the conquered peoples?

A. Many natives were converted to Christianity.
B. Native peoples suffered massive population loss from diseases.
C. New items (like horses and cattle) were introduced into their daily lives.
D. All of these are correct.

d

A. It assumes a zero-sum economic game: if one country prospers, another must lose.
B. It stresses the importance of colonies to make the "mother" country wealthier.
C. It encourages the government to have a role in the economy.
D. It discourages trade between countries.

c

The witchcraft trials of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries reflected:

A. the abudance and expandability of women.
B. fascination with new legal practices.
C. deep uncertainties in society; including with religion.
D. fears of false religions being brought to Europe from the Americas.

c

Which of the following countries did NOT participate in the Thirty Years' War?

A. France
B. Germany
C. Italy
D. Sweden

c

This region was most devastated by the Thirty Years' War:

A. Austria.
B. France.
C. Germany.
D. Russia.

b

According to the divine-right theory of absolute monarchy, the monarch is responsible to no one or thing, EXCEPT:

A. the legislature (or parliament).
B. God.
C. his people.
D. other rulers.

c

Who were the two cardinals that laid the groundwork for absolutism in France under Louis XIV?

A. Richelieu and Frondes
B. Frondes and Mazarin
C. Richelieu and Mazarin
D. Richelieu and Colbert

d

Which of the following political purposes did the splendid palace at Versailles NOT serve?

A. to provide a centralized location for government to enable Louis XIV to be part of all decisions
B. to show the power of Louis XIV and arouse the envy of the other monarchs
C. to be a place that would distract the nobles from the affairs of state
D. to reflect Louis XIV's ideas of westernization and his desire to modernize his country

c

What did Louis XIV's belief in "One king, one law, one faith" reflect?

A. It reflected his desire to unite Europe under one monarch.
B. Louis XIV believed himself to be the "sun king."
C. Louix XIV believed in a united France under his absolute control.
D. None of these are correct.

b

Which powerful European dynasty "rebooted" to create an empire in Austria?

A. the Bourbon Dynasty
B. the Habsburg Dynasty
C. the Tudor Dynasty
D. the Hohenzollern dynasty

d

Which two (modern-day) European nations were a complete "mess" in seventeenth century Europe - not united, and in some cases controlled by foreign powers?

A. England, Italy
B. England, Germany (the Holy Roman Empire)
C. Italy, Germany (the Holy Roman Empire)
D. France, Italy

a

By who did Peter the Great want Russian culture to be influenced (or modeled after)?

A. Western Europe
B. Asia
C. Africa
D. Eastern Europe

b

Why did Peter the Great go to war with the Swedes?

A. He wanted to "stamp out" religious dissension in Sweden.
B. Peter the Great desired a warm water port.
C. He wanted to conquer Western Europe to gain more land.
D. He didn't; the Swedish crown attacked Russia to gain control of fertile farmland.

c

Which of the following reflects the chronlogical order of the events in English history?

A. the Glorious Revolution, the Restoration, the English Civil War
B. the Engish Civil War, the Glorious Revolution, the Restoration
C. the English Civil War, the Restoration, the Glorious Revolution
D. None of these are in the correct order.

c

The chaos in England during the 17th century (especially the Glorious Revolution) laid the groundwork for which type of government that England would eventually become?

A. a direct democracy
B. an absolutist monarchy
C. a constitutional (limited) monarchy
D. communist

d

Scientific thought in Europe, before the Scientific Revolution, was based on all of the following sources, EXCEPT:

A. Christian theology
B. Aristotle
C. Ptolemy
D. Chinese literature

c

In the mid-fifteenth century, Catholic Church officials met in the city of Trent originally to discuss what?

A. the Scientific Revolution
B. the discoveries of Copernicus
C. Martin Luther and the Reformation
D. updating the Church calendar

a

The Church decided many things at the Council of Trent, most importantly, that NO ONE was to question:

A. the Bible.
B. the Holy Father.
C. local priests.
D. Martin Luther.

a

Another result of the Council was that the Catholic Church decided they needed a more accurate ________.

A. calendar
B. translation of the Bible
C. understanging of the heavens
D. map of Europe

c

Almost all scientific knowledge of the time was based on the writings and beliefs of which Greek thinker?

A. Galileo
B. Copernicus
C. Aristotle
D. Plato

b

Copernicus discovered several things, but most importantly:

A. that the sun revolves around the earth.
B. the earth revolves around the sun.
C. there were more than 9 planets in the solar system.
D. there were less than 9 planets in the solar system.

a

Tartaglia's work with ________ questioned the idea that all things go in a straight line.

A. cannons
B. guns
C. bowling balls
D. baseballs

b

Brahe's study of a ________ led him to question that all celestial objects go in a perfectly circular path.

A. planet
B. comet
C. cannonball
D. bowling ball

b

. Kepler, who continued the work of Brahe, discovered all of the following regarding the planets, EXCEPT

A. a speed of a planet is greater the closer it gets to the sun
B. all the planets are perfect spheres
C. the planets move in elliptical orbit
D. planets with larger orbits revolve at a slower average velocity than those with smaller orbits

b

Galileo's first discoveries dealt with:

A. weight.
B. acceleration.
C. mass.
D. force.

a

Galileo's most famous work, that questioned the authority of the Bible, was:

A. The Starry Messenger.
B. On the Heavens.
C. Heaven Explained.
D. None of these are correct.

d

A. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
B. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.
C. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
D. All of these are correct.

b

Paracelsus, Vesalius and Harvey are credited with advancements in all of the following EXCEPT

A. vaccine theory - like cures like
B. entemology
C. anatomy
D. circulation (blood flow)

a

Boyle's Law, dealing with gas, states

A. the volume of gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
B. the mass of gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
C. the weight of gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
D. the volume of gas varies with the temperature of the gas.

b

Historians consider Antoine Lavoisier, who developed an early periodic table, the founder of modern

A. biology.
B. chemistry.
C. physics.
D. anatomy.

c

Cavendish, Merian, and Winkelman (Kirch) demonstrate what about the Scientific Revolution?

A. Women were strongly encouraged to engage in scientific experimentation.
B. Men at the time considered women their equals when it came to science.
C. Though women were not encouraged to make scientific discoveries, many did anyway.
D. Women made no important discoveries or advancements in the Scientific Revolution.

a

Cartesian dualism describes the duality between what two things?

A. the mind and body
B. the mind and soul
C. the soul and body
D. the brain and heart

a

Sir Francis Bacon is credited with creating:

A. the scientific method.
B. three laws of motion.
C. a new outlook on planetary motion.
D. scientific discoveries based on Aristotle's teachings.

d

Spinoza's beliefs in God stated all of the following EXCEPT:

A. God is in all things.
B. God is infinite.
C. God is perfect.
D. God allows evil.

a

Blaise Pascal attempted to keep what two diverging things together?

A. reason and faith
B. the Catholic and Protestant Churches
C. science and reason
D. the Church and faith

a

The writers of travel literature in the eighteenth century portrayed:

A. people living in nature in foreign places as happier than Europeans.
B. Asians as immoral and intolerant.
C. foreign philosophies as incomplete, waiting for Christian fulfillment.
D. non-Christian religions as primitive and barbarous.

a

Montesquieu's most important contribution to political science was his:

A. praise for what he considered England's system of checks and balances.
B. support for freedom of the press and religion.
C. critique of Machiavelli's The Prince.
D. analysis of the faults in the French political system.

a

Voltaire was a strong proponent of religious:

A. toleration.
B. persecution.
C. orthodoxy.
D. atheism.

c

Which of the following statements concerning Denis Diderot is NOT true?

A. Diderot's twenty-eight volume Encyclopedia was a collection of writings from major philosophes of the time.
B. He was a harsh critic of Christianity, especially its moral practices.
C. As he grew older he made peace with Christianity and religion in general.
D. All of these are correct.

c

Rousseau argued in his novel Emlie that education:

A. was impossible in a world where man is no longer free.
B. should be supported by the state.
C. must combine heard and mind, sentiment and reason.
D. would and should blur the old distinctions between men and women.

b

Which of the following statements is NOT an argument Rousseau makes in his Social Contract?

A. The general will is more important than an individual's own self-interest.
B. An individual's own self-interest is more important than the general will.
C. True freedom can only be pursued by following what is best for all people; because what is best for all people is best for the individual.
D. All of these statements are correct.

a

In his Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith argued that:

A. the state should not interfere in economic matters.
B. land, not gold and silver, constituted the true worth of a country.
C. each businessman should provide his own police protection.
D. the state should monitor and control economic activity.

a

One of Adam Smith's most famous concepts is that of the __________, which guides most economic decisions in a free enterprise system.

A. invisible hand
B. strong-hand of government
C. hand of desire
D. weak hand of want

c

In Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Mary Wollstonecraft argued that

A. the subjection of men to women was wrong.
B. women should have equal rights despite their natural inferiority.
C. women should enjoy equal social, economic and political rights with men.
D. even though women were as reasonable as men they should not have equal rights.

b

"Crimes are more effectually prevented by the certainty than the severity of punishment." The preceding quote is from which Enlightenment reformer?


A. Voltaire
B. Cesare Beccaria
C. Mary Astell
D. Baron Paul d'Holbach

d

The salons:

A. typically did not allow conversation that was critical of either the government or established religion.
B. typically were composed of members of the lower and middle classes.
C. were subsidized by the government.
D. allowed the hostesses to influence political events and ideas.

b

Which artistic style of the eighteenth century attempted to capture to the simplicity and dignity of ancient Greece and Rome?

A. Rococo
B. Neoclassicism
C. Classical
D. Baroque

c

The Jesuits were finally dissolved by papal decree because:

A. their influence had declined since their inception.
B. they were found guilty of atrocities by American Indians.
C. their high-profile successes created many jealous enemies (especially in governments).
D. their secret rituals were believed to include Satanism.

b

The Moravian and Methodist Churches emerged in the 1700s as a result of:

A. peoples' desires for a more ritualized (but non-Catholic) Protestant faith.
B. peoples' want of a more personal relationship with God.
C. religious warfare.
D. a desire among many for a more "rational" Christian faith.

c

Which of the following is NOT considered one of the enlightened despots of the eighteenth century?

A. Frederick II of Prussia
B. Catherine the Great of Russia
C. George III of England
D. Joseph II of Austria

c

Joseph II of Austria tried to demonstrate that philosophy was his lawmaker by

A. imposing a system of tariffs and trade barriers.
B. letting Protestants worship freely in five cities of his kingdom.
C. establishing the principle that all his subjects were equal before the law.
D. grant monopolies only to banks which hired people from all classes.

b

As a result of a rebellion led by Emelyn Pugachev, Catherine of Russia

A. granted serfs limited freedom of occupation and travel.
B. halted all rural reform and expanded the scope of serfdom.
C. abdicated the the throne and fled the country.
D. appointed officials to oversee the peasants and respond to their needs.

b

The emergence of strong monarchial states in Prussia, Austria and Russia caused the collapse and destruction of

A. Denmark.
B. Poland.
C. Portugal.
D. Italy.

b

The War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War show the importance of what concept in eighteenth century international affairs?

A. might equals right
B. the balance of power
C. colonization is key
D. treating other nations and peoples humanely

c

The Seven Years' War

A. was initiated by Russian incursions into Poland.
B. saw much fighting in South America.
C. led to the weakening of France.
D. saw Britain ally with Austria.

d

France supported the colonial cause during the American Revolution because

A. Louis XVI admired Jefferson's political principles.
B. it hoped to gain additional territories in Europe.
C. Britain invaded French colonies in Canada.
D. it hoped to exact a measure of revenge against Britain.

c

The United States of America's first government was

A. the Declaration of Independence
B. the US Constitution
C. the Articles of Confederation
D. the Articles of Constitution

c

A. peasants who owned small land holdings.
B. skilled artisans and shop keepers in towns and villages.
C. members of the lower clergy who owned no property.
D. bourgeois merchants, industrialists and bankers.

a

Of France's three estates, prior to the French Revolution, which estate constituted the least amount of people?

A. The First
B. The Second
C. The Third
D. All estates had roughly equal numbers of people.

c

Which of the following did NOT force change in France that led to the French Revolution?

A. Enlightenment ideas
B. a weak leader
C. the Great Fear
D. economic troubles

c

What did the formation of the National Assembly represent in France?

A. It ended the French Revolution and brought peace.
B. It re-established the monarchy's power over the French government.
C. It signified the end of the absolute monarchy and the beginning of the people assuming power.
D. It started a massive wave of violence and death to sweep Europe.

d

The Tennis Court Oath was significant in the French Revolution because it

A. abolished the First and Second Estates and made the Third Estate supreme.
B. ended monarchial rule in France.
C. freed all prisoners in France who were being held for political offenses.
D. was the first time the Third Estate made a decision without royal approval.

d

For the people of Paris, the fall of the Bastille meant

A. that every household head now had a weapon to use in the revolution.
B. an increase in the prices of food products, particularly grain.
C. a humiliating defeated by foreign troops opposed to their revolution.
D. that they had won a victory over the old despotism they so despised.

b

The Declaration of the Rights of Man called for all of the following EXCEPT

A. freedom of speech and the press and from arbitrary arrest.
B. complete equality of the sexes, both politically and socially.
C. access to public office on the basis of talent.
D. the monarch's power to be restricted by popular will.

b

A march of __________ on October 5, 1789, forced Louis XVI and his family from Versailles to Paris.

A. peasants
B. women
C. nobles
D. knights

b

The Committee of Public Safety used its Reign of Terror to

A. protect the interests of the aristocracy.
B. identify and execute enemies of the Revolution.
C. bolster support for Napoleon.
D. support the French military against foreign enemies.

a

Who became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety?

A. Maximellen Robespierre
B. Louis XVI
C. Marie Antoinette
D. Jean-Paul Jacobin

b

Eventually, the chaos and uncertainity of the French Revolution enabled __________ to take power in France.

A. the English
B. Napoleon Bonaparte
C. the king (Louis XVI)
D. Toussaint L'Ouverture

b

Napoleon Bonaparte rose to prominence as a

A. key leader in the French Revolution's "Reign of Terror."
B. general in the French army.
C. successful merchant in France.
D. religious leader and reformer.

d

Which of the following changes did Napoleon NOT make in France?

A. He created a public education system.
B. He reformed the banking and money system.
C. He signed an important agreement with the pope.
D. He created a better transportation system.

c

What was the signifcance of the Concordat Napoleon signed with Pope Pius VII?

A. He erased any remaining influence the Catholic Church had in France.
B. He restored the Catholic Church to the prominent role it had in France prior to the French Revolution.
C. It recognized the influence of the Catholic Church in France but severely limited its power.
D. It made Catholicism once again the official religion of France.

c

Napoleon's Continental System was meant to isolate which European country?

A. Italy
B. Spain
C. Britain
D. Russia

a

Which tactic did Russia use against Napoleon invading army?

A. They used a scorched-earth policy.
B. They used a naval blockade.
C. They used guerilla warfare.
D. All of these are correct.

b

Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812:

A. gave Britain time to prepare for the planned invasion across the channel.
B. so weakened his military machine that within two years he was deposed.
C. sent just over a million soldiers of the Grand Army into combat.
D. ended with his death at Waterloo.

a

The Industrial Revolution first started in which country (or area)?

A. Great Britain
B. Germany
C. France
D. the United States

b

The agricultural revolution of the eighteenth century was important to the Industrial Revolution because:

A. it provided employment opportunities for dispalced urban workers.
B. it significantly increased food production.
C. it prevented families from purchasing manufactured goods.
D. it helped increase food prices.

c

Britain led the Industrial Revolution because of its combination of:

A. slave labor and colonial markets.
B. natural resources and complete focus on agriculture.
C. stable government and protection of private property.
D. polytechnic colleges and joint stock banks.

a

The "textile revolution" focused on improving the efficiency of what two parts of the textile-making process?

A. spinning and weaving
B. spinning and yarning
C. yarning and threading
D. dying and weaving

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