New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth where living organisms exist
a specific biological community and its physical environment interacting in an exchange of matter and energy.
Groups of organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
consists of all the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area
individual living things
two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions.
groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
systems of biology
an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
the specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome
the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism
accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process
an end product speeds up its production
the use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that result from high-throughput methods
a domain of prokaryotic bacteria the consists of cocci, bacilli, and spirilli shaped cells organized into strepto- and staphlo- groups
domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animals
Any of various single-celled prokaryotes genetically distinct from bacteria, often thriving in extreme environmental conditions
the act of seeking information by questioning
describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data
making conclusions based on observed patterns
a tentative theory about the natural world
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case
an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
diagrams, graphs, three-dimensional objects, computer programs, or mathematical equations
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