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Which of the following is NOT part of the peripheral nervous system?

A. Brain
B. Somatic nervous system
C. Peripheral nerve pathways
D. Cranial nerves

A. Brain

Which of the following is responsible for structural support within a cell?

A. Nissl substance
B. Dendrites
C. Microfilaments
D. Microtubules

C. Microfilaments

Which of the following is an insulating substance for the neuron?

A. Schwann sheath
B. Myelin
C. Neurilemma
D. Node of Ranvier

B. Myelin

Which of the following neurons transmit impulses from neuron to neuron?

A. Unipolar neurons
B. Sensory neurons
C. Motor neurons
D. Interneurons

D. Interneurons

A person experiences a traumatic event and neurons are severed. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of wallerian degeneration?

A. Swelling appears.
B. Neurofilaments atrophy.
C. The myelin sheath shrinks.
D. The axon portion degenerates.

B.Neurofilaments atrophy.

Which of the following BEST describes successive, rapid impulses received from a single neuron on the same synapse?

A. Temporal summation
B. Spatial summation
C. Actuation
D. Facilitation

A. Temporal summation

Which of the following is NOT a major division of the brain?

A. Forebrain
B. Cerebrum
C. Midbrain
D. Hindbrain

B. Cerebrum

Which of the following is a component of the midbrain?

A. Cerebral hemisphere
B. Tegmentum
C. Cerebellum
D. Medulla oblongata

B. Tegmentum

Which part of the brain contains all cell bodies and dendrites of neurons?

A. Gyri
B. Sulci
C. White matter
D. Gray matter

D. Gray matter

Which of the following is TRUE regarding Broca's area?

A. Responsible for receptive speech
B. Responsible for motor speech
C. Results in the inability to hear
D. Is often found in the right cerebral hemisphere

B. Responsible for motor speech

Which of the following is a function of the thalamus?

A. Major integrating center for afferent impulse
B. Maintenance of internal environment
C. Voluntary visual motor movements
D. Movements of the auditory system

A. Major integrating center for afferent impulse

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the cerebellum?

A. Makes up fibers of the corticospinal tract
B. Maintains balance or posture
C. Controls respiration
D. Location of cranial nerves V through VIII

B. Maintains balance or posture

An individual experiences a brain injury and the medulla oblongata is affected. Which of the following would you LEAST expect to occur due to this injury?

A. Alterations in heart rate
B. Alterations in respirations
C. Alterations in blood pressure
D. Alterations in balance and posture

D. Alterations in balance and posture

Which of the following is involved in pain transmission?

A. Posterior horn
B. Substantia gelatinosa
C. Anterior horn
D. Dorsal root ganglia

B. Substantia gelatinosa

A person experiences a hematoma called subdural hematoma. Which of the following is a TRUE statement regarding a subdural hematoma?

A. The subdural space lies between the dura and arachnoid.
B. It occurs due to the disruption of an artery.
C. It is closely adhered to the brain.
D. It also produces CSF.

A. The subdural space lies between the dura and arachnoid.

An alcoholic man falls and fractures his skull. He sustains an arterial bleed near the grooves of the skull. With which of the following types of hematoma is this man most likely going to present?

A. Subdural
B. Epidural
C. Subarachnoid
D. Lumbar cisterna

B. Epidural

Which is TRUE about epinephrine?

A. Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers release epinephrine.
B. Epinephrine stimulates only α-adrenergic receptors.
C. Epinephrine induces general vasodilation.
D. The action of epinephrine is the same no matter which receptor it binds.

C. Epinephrine induces general vasodilation.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the specificity theory of pain?

A. Focuses on the attention of pain
B. Focuses on previous experience of pain
C. Relates the amount of pain to the amount of soft tissue injury
D. Relates to the emotions exhibited toward pain

C. Relates the amount of pain to the amount of soft tissue injury

Which of the following is NOT a class of second-order neurons found in the dorsal horn?

A. Projection cells
B. Nociceptor cells
C. Excitatory interneurons
D. Inhibitory interneurons

B. Nociceptor cells

Which two systems regulate the complex emotional responses to pain?

A. Frontal and cerebellar lobes
B. Limbic and reticular system
C. Thalamus and brainstem
D. Midbrain and nuclei of thalamus

B. Limbic and reticular system

There are four classifications of neurotransmitters. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

A. Pain inhibitory
B. Inflammatory
C. Pain excitatory
D. Down-regulatory

D. Down-regulatory

Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter?

A. Glutamate
B. GABA
C. Glycine
D. Substance P

A. Glutamate

Which of the following is NOT an endogenous opioid?

A. Enkephalin
B. Endorphin
C. Dynorphins
D. Denkephalins

D. Denkephalins

Which of the following activities has been documented to increase the levels of circulating endogenous endorphins?

A. Cough
B. Stress
C. Sleep
D. Pain

B. Stress

What is the appropriate definition of perceptual dominance?

A. The duration of time or intensity of pain before overt pain responses are initiated
B. Pain at one location that may cause an increase in threshold at another location
C. Repeated exposure to pain
D.The point at which pain is perceived

B. Pain at one location that may cause an increase in threshold at another location

Which of the following is NOT a classification of acute pain?

A. Acute visceral
B. Pleuritic
C. Referred
D. Acute somatic

B. Pleuritic

Which of the following is the appropriate term for pain that is present in an area distant from its point of origin?

A. Acute pain
B. Chronic pain
C. Referred pain
D. Somatic pain

C. Referred pain

Which of the following is classified as a myofascial pain syndrome?

A. Muscle strain
B. Mastectomy
C. Neck dissection
D. Surgical amputation

A. Muscle strain

Which of the following is pain that results from tumor infiltration of nerve tissue, trauma, or chemical injury to the nerve?

A. Sympathetic
B. Deafferentiation
C. Complex regional
D. Central

B. Deafferentiation

Which part of the brain is responsible for temperature regulation?

A. Thalamus
B. Medulla
C. Hypothalamus
D. Limbic system

C. Hypothalamus

Which mechanism of heat loss refers to heat loss through electromagnetic waves?

A. Radiation
B. Conduction
C. Convection
D. Evaporation

A. Radiation

Which of the following is TRUE regarding fever?

A. Aberrant process involving cytokines
B. Normal adaptive response
C. Maintains core body temperature
D. Caused by decreased body temperature

B. Normal adaptive response

Which of the following is a benefit of fever?

A. Decreases lymphocytic transformation
B. Diminishes the response of phagocytosis
C. Decreases calcium concentration
D. Switches to lipolysis and proteolysis

D. Switches to lipolysis and proteolysis

A woman who has been outside on a summer day experiences increased sweating and thirst, and she feels weak and dizzy. Which of the following is the MOST accurate diagnosis?

A. Heat cramps
B. Heat exhaustion
C. Heat stroke
D. Malignant hyperthermia

B. Heat exhaustion

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of sleep?

A. Memory consolidation
B. Restorative functions
C. Growth and neurocognitive development
D. Parasomnias

D. Parasomnias

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