Test #2 Psychology

Created by LWalsh525 

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Classical conditioning refers to which of the following?

learning associations beween events we experience in our environment

Pavlov developed procedures for classical conditioning while studying, all of things, the___reflex.

salivary

Which of the following would be considered a "reflex" according to classical conditioning?

jumping in response to the "pop" of a firecracker

Every Friday, Dr. Cruz would give a quiz in his psychology class. Students quickly learned to be nervous on Friday mornings, just before each quiz. Halfway through the semester, Dr. Cruz stopped giving quizzes on Fridays and over time the students anxiety began to diminish with each passing week in which there was no quiz until they no longer felt anxious on Friday mornings. The decrease in the students anxiety may be attributed to the process of:

extinction

After a dog had been conditioned to salivate to the sight of a triangle (after previously being repeatedly paired with the presentation of food), the triangle alone was presented to the dog every three minutes. Over the course of several trials, the amt of saliva secreted by the dog in response to the triangle continually decreased until it got to zero. At that point, the dog was put back in his cage for the night. What typically happens the next morning when the triangle is presented to the dog again?

spontaneous recovery occurred and the dog again salivated in response to the triangle

The famous "Little Albert" study conducted by John Watson & Rosalie Rayner demonstrated:

that is was possible to condition an emotional reaction such as fear of something previously not feared.

Remembering what we learned about reinforcement, negative reinforcement always___a behavior by removing an aversive stimulus.

increases

Positive reinforcement always___the liklihood of a behavior's being repeated.

increases

Which of the following would be an example of a primary reinforcer?

a cold drink on a hot day when you become thirsty

According to Thorndikes Law of Effect:

if you go out of your way to be pleasant to a patient in the office and that patient praises your efforts to the physician you are more likely to be pleasant to patients again in the future.

Which of the following is the best example of a secondary reinforcer?

a gold star when you do good work

Slot machines provide reinforcement on a(n)___schedule of reinforcement.

ratio

Frank begins training his dog Sigmund to bring him the newspaper by giving Sigmund a treat when the dog goes to the door. during succesive attempts (or appoxiamtions) at training, he rewards Sigmund with a treat when the dog first sniffs the newspaper, later picks up the newpaper in his mounth & eventurally does all & brings the newspaper to Frank. In this ex Frank is training his dog using with of the following?

shaping

It is much eaier to develop a fear of snakes than it is to develop a feqr of lowers, best illustrating___to enhance survival.

biological preparedness

Coyotes who have been fed sheep carcasses that have been laced with a nausea inducing poison are less likely to prey on shieep in the wild thereafter. this phenomenon, which Garcia helped ranchers to bring about, is best explained by which classical conditioning phenomenon?

taste aversion

Although she had not received any specific instructions for filling out a Medical Insurance Form for reimbursement, Jamie had watched her boss at the office do so many times. when Jamies boss was out of town, Jamie successfully filled out that form on her own & the proctice was reimbursed. Until she actually did this, Jamies knowledge as an example of___.

latent learning

Alber Bandura research on modeling demonstated that:

children are very likely to model aggressive behavior

Scientists who study the effects of media violence on aggressive behavior have concluded that:

exposure to media violence increases the likelihood of vilent behavior both immediately and over the long run

when sensory information first comes in we transform that information into a form that can be entered & retained by the momory system. This process is known as?

encoding

Individuals suffering from anterograde amnesia after an outpatient surgical procedure under conscious sedation are unable to store the memories of that procedure that are believed to be processed in that sea horse/horseshoe shaped part of the brain called the___.

hippocampus

According to the three-stage model of memory, in what sequence does incoming information flow through memory?

sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

The "magical number 7+2" was derived from studies on:

Short term momory capactiy.

Short term memory is often also referred to as ___memory.

working

Retrieval in memory refers to:

the process of getting to information stored in long term memory to answer questions such as this one.

According to___, Brittany could not recall the name of a particular surgical retractor until her supervisor suggesd she actually picure herself being in the or with her favorite surgeon.

cue dependent theory

One strategy to increase the amt of information that can be held in short term memory is to group related items together into a single unit. This strategy is called:

chunking

Rather than simply repeating key terms & concepts from chapters 4 & 5 over & over, Jason focused on the meaning of the information in the chapers & tried to generate ex of concepts from his own surgical tech mock operating room experiences to relate to them as often as possible. Jason was using___to help encode info into his long term memory.

elaborative rehearsal

Which of the following exam questions would not be a recongnition task where one must choose the correct answer from the info provided?

essays

According to ___theory, we forget memories because we dont use them & they simply fad away over time as a matter of normal brain processes.

decay

The forgetting curve as described by Ebbinghaus for long term memory, initially shows a___, followed by a leveling off.

very fast decline

The research b Loftus & Palmer (1974) on the misinformation effect in memories revealed that participants were more likely to say___if the word "smashed" (rather than"hit") was included in the question about the traffic accident they had seen on film.

there was broken glass at the scene

The key theme of the Loftus & Palmer study of flase memory described in the text & enhanced by the short vidio clip shown in class is:

false memories can become "real" memories leading us to feel confident that they actually occurred.

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