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Exam #4

What main method did Kohlberg use to evaluate moral reasoning?

Interviews about moral dilemma stories

Hector became a police officer, because he believes that members of society prosper from understanding social order, law, justice and duty. On what moral level does he reason?

Conventional

Which of the following statements represents a criticism of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

Action, not thought is demonstrative of moral level

Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg's theory for:

Discounting the care perspective and female reasoning patterns

It Is unacceptable to lie, steal, cheat or hurt someone. These are examples of:

Moral rules

In England, people drive on the left side of the road. This is an example of a:

Social convention

Some individuals would not cheat on a math test but would cheat to win an athletic competition. This is an example of how:

Moral behavior is often dependent on situation

According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, what is the foundation of moral behavior?

Guilt and the desire to avoid feeling guilty

An Experimenter pretends to hurt her knee in front of a child to see how the child reacts to another's emotional response. This experimenter is studying:

Empathy

The results of Nancy Eisenberg's longitudinal study show that from early childhood into early adulthood, prosocial behavior is fairly:

Stable

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding gay or lesbian relationships?

Areas of conflict in a homosexual relationship are very like those of heterosexual partners

The restrictive, punitive parenting style in which parents exhort the child to follow directions and be respectful is termed by Baumrind as:

Authoritarian

The parenting style that encourages a child to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions is termed by Baumrind as:

Authoritative

Corporal punishment by parents is associated with all of the following EXCEPT:

Higher levels of long-term compliance

A recent study of adolescent sibling pairs revealed that 65 percent of their mothers and 70 percent of their fathers showed favoritism toward one sibling. Which of the following is TRUE regarding these findings?

The less-favored sibling showed lower self-esteem and sadness

The relationship between a parent and a first-born child is different from the relationship between a parent and later-born children in that the parent:

Has higher expectations of the first-born

Edith attends her grandchildren's special events and makes sure to do something special for them on their birthdays. What type of grandparent is Edith?

Formal

Wendy is a typical American child. Who will be her most loved relative in her extended family?

Her maternal grandmother

First-born and only children are ALIKE in that both are:

Achievement-oriented

Middle adults are referred to as the "sandwich" generation because:

Middle-aged adults may have to care for adolescent children as well as for elderly parents

Another student bumps into Kari in the classroom. As the student turns to apologize, teary-eyed Kari sulks back to her seat feeling picked on. Kari has committed an error in:

Social cognition

Jake responds calmly when his friend teases him about his haircut. Jake is showing competence in:

Emotional self-regulation

Which of the following statements is NOT true about friendship in late adulthood?

Family relationships are more important than friendships in predicting mental health

Todd and Daniel are playing in the same room making separate creations with building blocks. In which of Parten's play types are they engaged?

Parallel

A group of neighborhood children have come together to build a snow fort. In which of Parten's play types are they engaged?

Cooperative

Mr. Carter will retire next month. He has slowly been removing his mark from the company as well as lessening his interest and activity in the community. This is an example of the pattern predicted by which theory of aging?

Disengagement

Jorge retires next month. He has promised to return to train new employees when needed and is looking forward to being more politically involved in the community and devoting more time to his hobbies. This is an example of which aging theory?

Activity

What is self-efficacy?

Perceived control over the environment and the ability to produce positive outcomes

Behavior patterns, beliefs and all other products of a group of people that are passed on from generation to generation are known collectively, as:

Culture

Which of the following is characteristic of lower-income parents versus higher income parents?

View education as the teacher's job rather than a joint home and school responsibility

What happens to children's self-esteem as they proceed through early school years?

Decreases

Of the children who receive special education or related services, the majority are served under what classification?

Learning disability

Which of the following is TRUE of intervention strategies for learning disabilities?

Most children will benefit from early classification and intervention

Which of the following would exclude a student from being classified as having a learning disability?

Clinical depression

Some mental health professionals argue that doctors are too quick to prescribe medication for children with ADHD and recommend that these children:

Exercise several times a day

Extrinsic motivation is an integral component of which developmental approach?

Behavioral

Intrinsic motivation is emphasized in which developmental approach?

Cognitive

Crystal is a junior in high school. Her grades have not suffered since she took on a part-time job. She likely works:

Less than 20 hours a week

What happens to job satisfaction across the life span?

Increases steadily for both men and women

Which of the following is positively correlated with working into old age?

Good health

Twenty-five years ago, definitions of death centered on:

Breathing and blood pressure

Some experts believe that death should be defined as the nonfunction of the higher cortex even if the lower brain stem continues to function. This implies that human life:

Depends on the abilities to think, behave and have feelings

Which of the following refers to individuals' rights to determine whether extraordinary means should be used to keep them alive?

Living will

Which state allows active euthanasia?

Oregon

What is the goal of palliative care?

Reduce pain and suffering and help individuals die with dignity

Hospice is a program designed to:

Make the end of life as free from pain and anxiety as possible

Velma lives in the United States and is nearing the end of her life. Where is she most likely to die?

In a hospital

At what age do children gain an understanding of the universality and finality of death?

9 years

Which of the following lists Kübler-Ross's stages of grief in the correct order?

Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

Which of the following statements is an accurate criticism of Kübler-Ross's stages of dying?

She failed to validate the existence of the five-stage sequence

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