When a compound donates (loses) electrons, that compound becomes ______. Such a compound is oftern referred to as an electron donor.
When a compound accepts (gains) electrons, that compound becomes _______. Such a compound is ofter referred to as an electron acceptor.
In glycolysis, the carbon-containing compound that functions as the electron donor is ______.
Once the electron donor in glycolysis gives up its electrons, it is oxidized to a compound called _______.
____ is the compound that functions as the electron acceptor in glycolysis.
The reduced form of the electron acceptor in glycolysis is ______.
Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactions?
pyruvate, ATP, and NADH
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?
Location of glycolysis
Location of acetyl CoA formation
Location of Citric Acid Cycle
Location of Oxidative Phosohorylation
inner mitochondrial membrane
In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?
to function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain
How would anaerobic conditions (when no O2 is present) affect the rate of electron transport and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation? (Note that you should not consider the effect on ATP synthesis in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.)
Both electron transport and ATP synthesis would stop.
Which statement best explains why more ATP is made per molecule of NADH than per molecule of FADH2?
Fewer protons are pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane when FADH2 is the electron donor than when NADH is the electron donor.
Under anaerobic conditions (a lack of oxygen), the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA stops.
Which of these statements is the correct explanation for this observation?
In the absence of oxygen, electron transport stops. NADH is no longer converted to NAD+, which is needed for the first three stages of cellular respiration.
Which statement correctly describes how this increased demand would lead to an increased rate of ATP production?
ATP levels would fall at first, decreasing the inhibition of PFK and increasing the rate of ATP production.
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle.
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.
lactate and NAD+
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized.
pyruvate ... NADH
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?
True or false? The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from its three phosphate groups.
Which process is not part of the cellular respiration pathway that produces large amounts of ATP in a cell?
Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?
Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?
Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain is true?
NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the chain.
Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?
Electron transport and chemiosmosis
True or false? The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the mitochondria.
What is the reducing agent in the following reaction?
Pyruvate + NADH + H+ -> Lactate + NAD+
The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is
the H+ concentration gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions
provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient.
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is
When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?
The pH of the matrix increases.
Which of the following is a true distinction between fermentation and cellular respiration?
NADH is oxidized by the electron transport chain in respiration only.
Most CO2 from catabolism is released during
the citric acid cycle.
Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.
water ... NADPH
Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?
True or false? The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the synthesis of ATP generates a proton gradient that leads to electron flow through an electron transport chain.
According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?
Which of the following particles can pass through the ATP synthase channel?
True or false? The region of ATP synthase that catalyzes the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate spans the chloroplast membrane.
Chloroplast membrane vesicles are equilibrated in a simple solution of pH 5. The solution is then adjusted to pH 8. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these experimental conditions?
ATP will not be produced because there is no ADP and inorganic phosphate in the solution.
Which process produces oxygen?
Which set of reactions uses H2O and produces O2?
The light-dependent reactions
What is the importance of the light-independent reactions in terms of carbon flow in the biosphere?
The light-independent reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars.
True or false? The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis use water and produce oxygen.
Which of the following molecules is the primary product of photosystem I?
What is the biological significance of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
They convert carbon dioxide to sugar.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
The light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by the light-independent reactions.
Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?
Regneration of RuBP
In the light reactions, light energy is used to oxidized ___ to ___.
Carbon fixation involves the addition of carbon dioxide to _____.
After 3-PGA is phosphorylated, it is reduced by _____.
How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP to make a single molecule of glucose?
In the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?
The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with
ATP and NADPH.
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?
H2O -> NADPH -> Calvin cycle
In mechanism, photophosphorylation is most similar to
oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration.
How is photosynthesis similar in C4 and CAM plants?
In both cases, rubisco is not used to fix carbon initially.
Which process is most directly driven by light energy?
removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules
Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?
release of oxygen