Follower of Jean Piaget. Developed and researched advanced organizers. Developed subsumation theorty, that the primary process in learning is subsumation where new material is relation to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure in a substantive, non verbatim base
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development, Developed the idea of the "Zone of Proximal Development," mainly focused on cognitive development of children.
neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
Development; Concepts: stages of moral development; Study Basics: Studied boys responses to and processes of reasoning in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
Development; Concepts: gender in moral development; Study Basics: Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Different reasoning, not better or worse
Construct with ideas and concepts of what they know.
a theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.
In the study of motivation, an explanation of behavior that asserts that people actively and regularly determine their own goals and the means of achieving them through thought.
Freud's theory which emphasized that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in he first few years is crucial for healthy personality development
Social Learning Theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
explanation of development that focuses on the quality of the early emotional relationships developed between children and their caregivers
While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems, humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of these theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
Refers to one's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes. Those with high levels for a particular task are more likely to succeed than those with low levels
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Theory of Classical Conditioning
John B. Watson
coined the term "Behaviorism"
Connectionism; Wrote the thesis, "Animal Intelligence: An Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals", in which he concluded that an experimental approach is the only way to understand learning and established his famous "Law of Effect".
(Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the "stamping in" of connections, forgetting involves "stamping out" connections.
Contiguity Theory; "One-Trial Learning" (Behaviorism)
(Behaviorism)- One explanation for learning in behaviorism; an association is built between two events simply because they occured simultaneously or overlapping in time.For example, if food is presented while some auditory signal is given, a dog will "learn" to salivate when it hears the auditory signal, even if no food is present.
B. F. Skinner
William Kaye Estes
Stimulus Sampling Theory (SST)
Stimulus Sampling Theory (SST)
(Estes) - A theory developed by Estes that attempts to show how stimuli are sampled and attached to responses. A statistical learning theory.
a transitional group, bridging the gap between behaviorism and cognitive theories of learning. timulus-Response; Intervening Internal Variables; Purposive Behavior;
Kenneth W. Spence
Edward C. Tolman
Sign Theory & Latent Learning
Drive Reduction Theory
Keneth W. Spence
Learning as a Mental Process
Gestalt Learning Theory
Perception, Decision making, Attention, Memory, & Problem Solving
Max Wertheimer 1880
Gestalt Learning Theory
Field Theoretical Approach
Knowledge is Constructed; the Learner is an Active Creator
Constructivist; published The Process of Education; theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning
Constructivist; Genetic Epistemology; Stages of Cognitive Development
Psychoanalytic Theory of Learning; The role of the Unconscious Mind in Learning
Emotions and Affect Play a Role in Learning
Humanistic Theory of Learning
Humanistic; Experiential Learning
Humanistic; Transformational Learning
Social Learning Perspective
Learning as a group process; Lev Vygotsky 1896 - 1935 Social Constructivism
Albert Bandura 1925 - Observational Learning
John Seely Brown Cognitive Apprenticeship
Social Constructivism; The Zone of Proximal Development is a concept for which he is well known.
Zone of Proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky - ZPD refers to the observation that children, when learning a particular task or body of information, are unable initiallly to do the task. Later they can do it with the assistance of an adult or older child mentor, and finally they can do it without assistance. The ZPD is the stage where they can do it with assistance, but not alone.
Albert Bandura -
1. Attention - the learner must have his/her senses directed at the model
2. Retention, coding, and storing the patterns so they can be retrieved. This may include vivid imagery an verbal descriptions.
3. Motor reproduction - kinesthetic and neuromuscular patterns are practiced with successive iterations until the model's behavior is approximated by the observer.
4. Reinforcement and incentives- propel the learner to attention, practice and retention.
variables being observed and measured in response to the independent variables, such as amount of time taken to learn a task or respond after a stimulus is given, number of responses, etc.
Discrimination Learning Theory
(Spence)- reinforcement combined with frustration or inhibitors facilitated finding a correct stimulus among a cluster which included incorrect ones. This was a "carrot and stick" model.
Drive Reduction Theory
-(Hull)- the notion that behavior occurs in reponse to "drives" such as hunger, thirst, sexual interest, feeling cold, etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food, water, mating, warmth) the drive is reduced, and this constitutes reinforcement of the behaviors that lead to the drive reduction, and ultimately learning.
(Tolman)- the theory that animals (and humans) develop expectancy or anticipation of rewards for completing behaviors they have learned, and this expectancy functions as an internal incentive or motivation.
(Brown, Cognitive apprenticeship)- knowledge which lacks application or cross contextual understanding.
(Tolman) - these are hypothetical constructs rather than physical parameters. They are definable and measurable but not observable. They have functional relationships with both independent and dependent variables. They are internal cognitive processes.
Law of Effect
(Thorndike) - Responses which occur just prior to a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated, and responses just prior to an annoying state of affairs are more likely NOT to be repeated.
Law of Exercise
(Thorndike)- the idea that bonds between stimulus and response are strengthened by recency, frequency, and contiguity.
(Behaviorism, Skinner)- a model which states that when a resonse is followed by a reinforcer, the result will be an increase in the probability that this response will occur again under similar conditions.
(Piaget) - an element of a cognitive structure. Schema refers to a general potential to perform a class of behaviors, and content describes the conditions that prevail during any particular example of that potential being activated. (Schemata = plulral)
Statistical Learning Theory
a learning theory in which the probablity of a response is the dependent variable. Independent variables are usually stimuli controlled by the researcher. These are attempts to quantify and objectify learning research.
(G. A. Miller)- (Test - Operate - Test - Exit). These are operational feedback units that function within a self-regulated system.
occurs when the presence of previously learned material interferes with the learning of new material.
structure of intellect stipulated that intelligence depends on our mental operations (or process of thinking), our thoughts (i.e., content), and the products or end results of these operations.
IQ, in the Stanford-Binet formulation, is found by
dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Physiological- water, sleep food. Safety- security, shelter, protection Belongingness- love, friendship, acceptance. Ego Needs- prestige, status. Self Actualization- self fulfillment, enriching experiances
presented a theory of self-efficacy, or the importance of one's personal belief regarding self-ability and chances of success, as key to motivation.
multiple intelligence theory specifies seven different intelligences that presume a broadened definition of intelligence.