Which of the following cutanous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch and light pressure?
T/F The pinkish hugh of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenated hemoglobin circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflecting through the epidermis.
T/F The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis.
Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?
Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion which in turn, acts as sunscreen.
Burns are devastating and debilitating b/c of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of the burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?
by using the "rule of nines"
T/F Incisions should be made across rather than parallel to cleavage lines produced by collagen.
T/F Ceruminous glands are modified merocrine glands.
Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because ________.
they produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties.
T/F The stratum corneum (outer most layer of skin) is a zone of approximately four layers of viable cells that are able to synthesize proteins that keep the outer bilater of the skin smooth and soft.
T/F Melanomas are rare but must be removed.
T/F The hyponychium is commonly called the cuticle.
Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormone influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?
In the axillary and anogenital area
T/F The outermost sheath of a hair follicle is the connective tissue root sheath.
The dermis has 2 major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?
The dermis _______.
has 2 layers
The designs of a persons epidermal ridge is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as hand, foot, and finger prints. Which of the following statements is true?
They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
T/F During the resting phase of hair growth, the matrix is innactive and the follicle atrophies.
Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hair on your head because ________.
eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ______.
the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ______.
T/F The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.
Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goosebumps?
Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?
lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum; a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.
The function of the root hair plexus is to _____.
allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
T/F The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which cell types are found in the dermis?
fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells
T/F The skin isn't able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore there are no sensory receptors in the skin.
The _______ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax.
T/F The dermis has a connective tissue and adipose layer that loosely bind the body together.
Which of the 5 layers of epidermis is responsible for cell division and replacement?
The epidermis is responsible for protecting the body against invasion of bacteria and other foreign agents primarily because it's composed of ______.
4 different cell shapes found in different layers
T/F Destruction of the matrix of the hair bulb would result in its inability to produce oil.
Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution of the body. Which is correct?
Ceruminous glands secrete cerumin, which is thought to deter insects.
Acne is a disorder associated with _____ glands.
T/F The reason the nail appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the underlying dermis.
T/F Skin surface markings that reflect tight points of dermal attachment to underlying tissues are called epidermal ridges.
The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated by _______.
hormones, especially androgens.
In addition to protection, the skin _________.
Converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a Vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
A splinter penetrates skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot. Which layer is this?
Name the 3 layers of the skin.
Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
The ________ is an avascular, keratinized sheet of stratified squamos epithelium.
Name the layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial.
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum.
T/F The stratum lucidum is absent in thin skin.
The ______, composed mainly of dense, irregular connective tissue, is well supplied with blood vessels lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
T/F Skin color reflects the amount of pigments in the skin and oxygenation level of hemoglobin in blood.
______ production is stimulated by exposure to ultraviolet radiation and sunlight.
Skin appendages include ______,______, & _______.
glands, hair and hair follicles, and nails.
T/F The primary function of eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands is thermoregulation.
________ glands occur all over the body surface except for the palms and soles.
________ lubricates the skin and hair, prevents water loss from the skin, and acts as a bacteridical agent.
T/F A nail is a scalelike modification of the epidermis that covers the dorsum of a finger/toe tip.
The actively growing region of the nail is the _____.
T/F The skin protects by chemical, physical, and biological barriers.
T/F The most common skin disorders result from infections.
Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are cured if they are removed before ________.
In severe burns, the initial threat is loss of ______and ______, which may lead to circulatory collapse.
protein, electrolyte rich body fluids
What is the second threat of severe burns?
How does UV damage contribute to the wrinkling of the skin?
it degrades collagen and leads to loss of skin elasticity and water holding capacity
Burns to the anterior head and face are more serious than burns to the trunk because ______.
damage to the lungs can occur
What rule helps one recognize the signs of melanoma?
The ABCD rule. A. Asymmetry B. Border irregularity C. Color D. Diameter
________ is a type of skin cancer that develops from the youngest epidermal cells.
Basal cell carcinoma
What chemicals produced in the skin help provide barriers to bacteria? How are these chemicals protective?
The low pH of skin secretions inhibits division of bacteria, sebum and defensins kill bacteria, cathelidicins, which are released by damaged skin, defend against strep bacteria.