Chapter 21 Part 1 Anatomy

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What is the length of blood vessels found in the body?

60,000 miles

What is the central hollow space in a blood vessel called?

lumen

Blood vessels are made up of what?

walls

What are the layers for the wall of a blood vessel

tunica interna
tunica media
tuncia externa (adventitia)

What is the tunica interna of a blood vessel made up of? The tunica interna is one of the layers of the blood vessel wall.

endothelium;
elastic lamina

What is the purpose of the elastic lamina? It is a component of the tunica interna. The tunica interna is one of the layers of the blood vessel wall.

stretch rebound

What is the tunica media made up of? It is a layer of the blood vessel wall.

elastic fibers
smooth 45 muscle

What is the tunica externa (adventitia) made up of? The tunica externa is a layer of the blood vessel wall.

elastin and collagen

What is another name for the tunica externa? The tunica externa is a layer of the blood vessel wall.

adventitia

What is angiogenesis the growth of? genesis = beginning.

new blood vessels

What is angiogenesis?

important process in the fetus and in postnatal processes

What causes angiogenesis or the growth of new blood vessels to occur more than normal?

A malignant tumor

What do malignant tumors secrete?

tumor angiogenesis factors

What does TAF stand for?

Tumor angiogenesis factor

Tumors are dependent on what for their growth?

new blood vessels (angiogenesis)

Malignant tumors secrete tumor angiogenesis factors which stimulate what?

blood vessel growth to nature the tumor cells

What are scientists doing to stop angiogenesis? Angiogenesis is needed for a tumor to grow.

looking for chemicals to prevent it

What is an objective of scientists working on the angiogenesis problem?

to stop tumor growth

What is another goal that scientists hope to achieve by preventing angiogenesis?

prevent the blindness associated with diabetes

What do blood vessels form? Or what are blood vessels?

a closed system of tubes

What is a purpose of blood vessels which are a closed system of tubes?

carry blood away from the heart

What is a purpose of blood vessels which are a closed system of tubes?

transport blood away from the heart to tissues of the body

What is a purpose of blood vessels which are a closed system of tubes?

After transporting blood to the tissues of the body return it to the heart

Name a type of blood vessel:

Arteries

Name a type of blood vessel

Arterioles

Name a type of blood vessels

capillaries

Name a type of blood vessel

Venules

Name a type of blood vessel

Veins

Name a type of blood vessel

Vaso vasorum

What is the purpose of the arteries? Arteries are a type of blood vessel.

carry blood away from the heart to the tissues

What are arterioles? Arterioles are a type of blood vessel.

small arteries that connect to capillaries

What are the capillaries? Capillaries are a type of blood vessel.

site of substance exchange between the blood and body tissues

What is the purpose of the venules? Venules are a type of blood vessel.

connect capillaries to larger veins

What do the veins do? They are a type of blood vessel.

convey blood from the tissues back to the heart

What is the Vaso vasorum? They are a type of blood vessel.

small blood vessels that supply blood to the cells of the walls of the arteries and veins

What are the two functional properties of arteries?

Elasticity and Contractility

A functional property of the arteries is elasticity. The elasticity property is found where in the arteries?

tunica internal and media

What is the purpose of the elasticity property of the arteries?

allows arteries to accept blood under great pressure from the contraction of the ventricles

Contractility is a functional property of the arteries. Where is this property found?

smooth muscle in the tunica media

What is the purpose of the contractility functional property of arteries?

allows arteries to increase or decrease lumen size and to limit bleeding from wounds

What composes the majority of the wall of blood vessels?

Vascular smooth muscle

Vascular smooth muscle which composes the majority of the wall of blood vessels is innervated by what?

sympathetic nervous system

The vascular smooth muscle of the blood vessel wall is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. What happens to the blood vessel wall when the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated?

vasoconstriction or decreased diameter of vessel

What happens when the sympathetic system is activated due to an injury in an artery or arteriole?

muscle contraction which reduces blood loss (vasospasm)

What is a vasospasm?

muscle contraction which reduces blood loss

What happens to the blood vessel when the sympathetic system or certain chemicals are reduced?

vasodilation

What happens to the blood vessel when the sympathetic system or certain chemicals are reduced?

increased size of vessel (vasodilation)

What happens when stimulation of the sympathetic system or certain chemicals are decreased?

Nitric oxide, K+, H+ and lactic acid are produced

What chemicals cause vasodilation of the blood vessel wall? Vasodilation of the blood vessel wall occurs when the sympathetic system and/or certain chemicals are reduced.

Nitric oxide, K+, H+ and lactic acid

Name a chemical which causes vasodilation of the blood vessel wall:

Nitric oxide

Name a chemical which causes vasodilation of the blood vessel wall:

K+

Name a chemical which causes vasodilation of the blood vessel wall:

H+

Name a chemical which causes vasodilation of the blood vessel wall:

lactic acid

What are elastic arteries?

large arteries

What is a description of the elastic arteries?

thin walled compared to lumen diameter

What is a description of the elastic arteries?

carry large volumes of blood quickly

What is a description of the elastic arteries?

more elastic than muscular walls

What is an example of an elastic artery?

aorta

What is the size of muscular arteries?

intermediate size

What is a description of the muscular arteries?

thicker wall compared to lumen

What is a description of the muscular arteries?

help adjust rate of blood flow

What is a description of the muscular arteries?

more muscular than elastic

What is an example of a muscular arteries?

brachial artery

What is an anastmoses?

direct connection of 2+ vessels serving an area

What does an anastomoses allow?

collateral circulation

Anastamoses is a direct connection of 2+ vessels serving an area. What is an example of an anastomoses or connection of two blood vessels?

2 arteries

Anastamoses is a direct connection of 2+ vessels serving an area. What is an example of an anastomoses or connection of two blood vessels?

vein to vein

Anastamoses is a direct connection of 2+ vessels serving an area. What is an example of an anastomoses or connection of two blood vessels?

arteriole to venule

A blood vessel is either a part of an Anastomoses or what? In other words a blood vessel is either connected to another blood vessel or what?

end arteries: no network (connection) with other arteries

What is the opposite of an anastomoses?

end arteries

What is an end arteries?

no network (connection) with other arteries

What happens when an end artery is damaged?

necrosis

What is necrosis?

death of body tissue

What is a description of arterioles?

nearly microscopic

What is a function of arterioles?

major site BP regulation

What are metaarterioles?

direct bypass of capillary beds

What is the purpose of arteriole vasomotion?

allows filling of capillary bed 5-10 times/minute

What is arteriole vasomotion?

intermittent contraction and relaxation of sphincters

What are capillaries?

Microscopic vessels that connect arterioles to venules

Where are capillaries found?

near every cell in the body but more extensive in highly active tissue such as muscles, liver, kidneys, and brain

Capillaries are found near every cell in the body. Where are they found more extensively?

in highly active tissue such as muscles, liver, kidneys, and brain

Capillaries are found near every cell in the body. They are found more extensively in highly active tissue such as what?

muscles, liver, kidneys, and brain

Capillaries are found near every cell of the body. What happens when the tissue that capillaries are found in becomes active?

entire capillary bed fills with blood

What is a place where capillaries not found in the body?

Epithelia

What is a place where capillaries not found in the body?

cornea and lends of eye and cartilage

What is the function of capillaries?

exchanges nutrients and wastes between blood and tissue fluid

Capillary walls are composed of what?

a single layer of cells (endothelium) and a basement membrane

What is something capillary walls are composed of?

a single layer of cells (endothelium)

What is something capillary walls are composed of?

a basement membrane

What is endothelium?

a single layer of cells

What are the three types of capillaries?

Continuous capillaries
Fenestrated capillaries
Sinusoids

What is a type of capillary?

continuous

What is a type of capillary?

fenestrated

What is a type of capillary?

sinusoids

What are continuous capillaries made up of?

intercellular clefts

Continuous capillaries are made up of intercellular clefts. What are intercellular clefts?

gaps between neighboring cells

Fenestrated capillaries are made up of what?

plasma membranes which have many holes

What do the plasma membranes of fenestrated capillaries have?

many holes

Where are continous capillaries found in the body?

skeletal and smooth muscle;
connective tissue and lungs

Where is a place that continuous capillaries are found in the body?

skeletal muscle

Where is a place that continuous capillaries are found in the body?

smooth muscle

Where is a place that continuous capillaries are found in the body?

connective tissue

Where is a place that continuous capillaries are found in the body?

lungs

Where are fenestrated capillaries found in the body?

kidneys, small intestine, choroid plexuses, ciliary process and endocrine glands

Where is a place that fenestrated capillaries are found in the body?

kidney

Where is a place that fenestrated capillaries are found in the body?

small intestine

Where is a place that fenestrated capillaries are found in the body?

choroid plexuses

Where is a place that fenestrated capillaries are found in the body?

ciliary process and endocrine glands

What are sinusoid capillaries?

very large fenestrations

What do sinusoid capillaries have?

incomplete basement membrane

What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?

liver

What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?

bone marrow

What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?

spleen

What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?

anterior pituitary

What is a place that sinusoid capillaries are found?

parathyroid gland

What are sinusoid capillaries found?

liver, bone marrow, spleen, anterior pituitary, and parathyroid gland

What are venules?

small veins

Where do venules come from?

capillaries

Where do capillaries drain into?

venules

What do venules drain into?

veins

What is a composition of veins?

the same three tunics as arteries

What is a composition of veins?

thinner tunic interna than arteries

What is a composition of veins?

thinner media than arteries

What is a composition of veins?

thicker tunica externa than arteries

Veins have less what than arteries?

elastic tissue and smooth muscle

What is another comparision between veins and arteries?

veins have thinner walls

What do veins contain?

valves

Veins contain valves. What is the purpose of valves?

prevent backflow of blood

What is another name for vascular sinuses?

venous

What do vascular sinus veins have?

very thin walls with no smooth muscle to alter their diameters

What is a location for the vascular sinus veins?

brain superior sagittal sinus

What is a location for the vascular sinus veins?

coronary sinus of the heart

What are varicose veins?

twisted, dilated superficial veins

Why are varicose veins bad?

allow backflow and pooling of blood

Why does backflow and pooling of blood occur in varicose veins?

extra pressure forces fluids into surrounding tissues

In Varicose veins extra pressure forces fluids into surrounding tissues causing what?

backflow and pooling of blood

Varicose veins cause what by allowing backflow and pooling of blood?

nearby inflammation and tenderness of tissue

What is varicose veins caused by?

leaky venous valves

What causes the varicose veins to be congentially or mechanically stressed?

prolonged standing or pregnancy

What is something that varicose veins are found in?

esophagus

What is something that varicose veins are found in?

superficial veins of the lower limbs

What is something that varicose veins are found in?

the anal canal (hemorrhoids)

What are hemorrhoids?

anal canal

What type of veins are not susceptible to the disorder: varicose vein? In other words what veins are less likely to become varicose?

Deeper veins

Why are deeper veins not susceptible to the varicose disorder. Or why are deeper veins not going to become varicose veins?

support from surrounding muscles

What is a treatment for varicose veins?

sclerotherapy (medication causes shrinkage)

What is a treatment for varicose veins?

radiofrequency endovenous occlusion

What is a treatment for varicose veins?

laser occlusion

What is a treatment for varicose veins?

surgical stripping

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