← Week 1 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Locate the 12 CN Nerves http://o.quizlet.com/i/5tKI0ohaXU3M9ueoFXEK7Q.jpg Identify 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 16. http://o.quizlet.com/i/t2DvY9d1bK94QlBlJmkgeQ.jpg Identify 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, 16. 6- Amygdala; 7- Thalamus; 8- Hypthothalamus; 14- Caudate; 15- Putamen; 16- GP Identify 5, 7. http://o.quizlet.com/i/VEqYKHgMj_9L1jlIeIVXYQ.jpg Identify 5, 7. 5- Hippocampus; 7-Thalamus. Identify 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. http://o.quizlet.com/i/ou6hY2kOQGCQOO9F1QiPsA.jpg Identify 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. 1- Cerebellum; 2- Midbrain; 3-Pons; 4-Medulla; 7- Thalamus, 8- Hypothalamus; 9- Frontal lobe; 10- Parietal lobe; 11- Occipital lobe; 12- Temporal lobe. 13-Limbic Lobe. Define the role of Tau Proteins. Tau proteins are MAPs that interact with tubulin and stabilize microtubules. These proteins are enriched in neurons compared to non-neuronal cells. Within neurons tau is present in axons especially at the distal ends (terminal ends). Dysfunction of tau has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosporylation) and frontotemporal dementia. Diseases involving tau proteins are referred to as tauopathies. In which direction do Kinesin and Dyenin travel? Kinesin- (- → +) termed anterograde; Dyenin- (+ → -) termed retrograde. Note: Vesicles move fast, proteins move slowly Where are unipolar, bipolar, Pseudounipolar, and mulitpolar neurons found? http://o.quizlet.com/i/nH8YxjTHTN4PoZtnMnDxHg.jpg What is the role of Astrocytes? Are they in the CNS or PNS? Astrocytes- Help contain the BBB with gap junctions and contain GFAP. They also regulate K concentration. When they become reactive the form a glial scar which can happen in an infarct and cause paralysis. What is the role of Oligodendrocytes? Are they in the CNS or PNS? Myelination in the CNS, and can cover many neurons at once. What is the role of Microglia? Are they in the CNS or PNS? Immune cells of the CNS. What is the role of Ependymal Cells? Are they in the CNS or PNS? These cells line ventricles, the central canal of the spinal cord, and make CSF along with the Choroid plexus. What is the role of Schwann Cells? Are they in the CNS or PNS? Schwann cells myelinate nerves in the PNS. They are interrupted by nodes of ranvier. Function of white v. gray matter? White matter sends info, gray collects it. Where are the epinerium, perinerium, and endonerium? Epinerium is the outermost covering. Perinerium is akin to the filler, and serves a blood/nerve barrier. Endonerium covers a single nerve fiber. What are the pathways across the BBB? Paracellular, transcellular lipophillic, transport prots, receptor mediated, and adsorptive transcytosis. Blue is motor, red is sensory. Also look at where the tract is going after the lesion. That is how you can tell where the lesion will be 1. The motor problem will be on the left side. 2. The motor problem will be on the left side 3. The motor lesion will be on the right side and the sensory lesion will be on the right side. 4. The motor lesion will be on the right side but the sensory lesion will be on the left. http://o.quizlet.com/i/stTn7YUmnbNG87CRkE8Dmg.jpg What are the six steps in NMJ transduction? 1. AP depolarizes membrane and causes Ca influx via voltage gated sensitive Ca channels. 2. Ca influx causes SNARES to fuse. 3. ACh is released into the synaptic cleft. 4. ACh binds Nicotinic postsynaptic membrane receptors. 5. ACh receptors allow Ca, Na, or K to enter cell. 6. ACh either diffuses or is degraded by AChE in the NMJ. What is the EPP? The EPP is the result of multiple quanta at the NMJ. Does the EPP have a high or low safety factor? It has a high safety factor because mEPPs do not propagate an action potential. What are the effects or curare, botox, and alpha-lac? Curare- AChR blocker; Botox- cleaves SNARES (Tetanus cleaves s-brevin) Neither cleaves s-tagamin; Alpha Lac- causes fusion of all vesicles. What are the E(ion) values for Ca, K, and Na, and what is the Current equation? Ca is -60, K is -110, and Na is +70. I=g(Vm-Eion) When measuring the velocity of a nerve, to what to you attach? You attach to the muscle that nerve innervates. By picking two places along a nerve, you can subtract out and get info on that nerve. NCS: Prolonged or Slow Latency Myelin loss NCS: Low Amplitude Axon Loss NCS: Prolonged Latency and Low Amplitude Myelin and Axon Loss NCS: Conduction Block Segmental Myelin loss NCS: Wrong shape Wrong nerve or variable myelin or axon loss. What the I fiber afferent and efferents? What size is this fiber? Afferents- Ia: muscle spindle; Ib: golgi tendon. Efferent- Lower motor neurons: alpha fibers It is the largest myelinated fiber. What are the delta (type 3) fiber afferent and efferents? What size is this fiber? Afferents- delta (for sharp pain, cold and some touch) Efferent- Preganglionic autonomic They are the smallest myelinated fibers. What are the C (Type 4) fiber afferent and efferents? What size is this fiber? Afferents- SLOW pain, heat, and itch. Efferents- postganglionic autonomic Review this graph http://o.quizlet.com/i/iLU3KOFYzTC4T0fPlQxKbw.jpg What are the actions that can happen after injury to a nerve? Nissl bodies disappear, wallerian degeneration, and macs infiltration of endonerium. If the nerve is cut, Bunger bodies can form. Review this chart!! http://o.quizlet.com/i/LBCNI-p2DZEIkqkfuykUPQ.jpg What are the motor nerve responses in polyn's? Loss: Wasting, hypotonia, hypoflexia, orthopedic deformities; Disturbed: Fasiculations, cramps. What are the sensory nerve responses in polyn's? LARGE FIBER- Loss: Vibration sense, proprioception sense, hyporeflexia, sensory ataxia; Disturbed: Parasthesias. SMALL FIBER- Loss: Pain and Temperature sense; Disturbed: Dysthesias and Allodynia. What are the Autonomic nerve responses in polyn's? Loss: decreased sweating, hypotension, urinary retention, impotence, and vascular color change; Disturbed: increased sweating and hypertension.