← Chapter 20 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Islam Primary religion of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal Empires. The Ottoman Empire This was the longest lasting Islamic Empire, existing from 1453-1922 in what is now modern day Turkey along with land in North Africa and Eastern Europe. It was a Gunpowder empire which was mainly Sunni and had it's peak in the sixteenth century under Suleiman the Magnificent. Suleiman the Magnificent The most illustrious Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Also know as the "Lawgiver". He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. Constantinople this imperial Capital of the Roman Empire was taken by the Ottoman Empire from the Byzantines in 1453 and renamed Istanbul, this put an end to over eleven hundred years of Byzantine rule. It became the base of the Ottoman Empire and one of the wealthiest and largest cities in Europe. Safavid Empire this Iranian Kingdom which last from 1502- 1722 encompassed modern day Iran. Ismail Safavi who declared it a Shiite state established it. It was a gunpowder empire similar to the Ottoman's and saw it's height from 1587-1629 under Shah Abbas. Developed Persian culture aswell. Shah Abbas the Great The fifth and most renowned ruler of the Safavid dynasty in Iran (1587-1629). He moved the royal capital to Isfahan in 1598. He promoted the arts, was a fare leader and listened to his subjects. Isfahan Shah Abbas unified Persia and moved the royal capital to this city in 1598. This capital's parks, libraries, mosques and the royal mosque amazed Europeans. Mughal Empire Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Akbar Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire. (1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation of Hindus. He ruled at age 13. He married Hindu Rajputs princes. He blended the elements of several different religions. Shah Jahan Akbar's grandson who built the expensive Taj Mahal for his favorite wife. Example of the Mughal Empire being blind to necessary developments and instead investing in expensive buildings. Aurangzeb Sultan who practiced Muslim Intolerance. Making Islam the main religion when Hinduism was the majority religion was destructive to the empire and contributed to its ultimate demise. Janissaries Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman Army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826. Quran is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God (Arabic: Allah) and the final divine revelation. It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language Muhammad he founder of the religion of Islam, and is considered by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God, the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets, and, by most Muslims, the last prophet of God as taught by the Qur'an. The 5 Pillars 1) SHAHADA- to bear Witness 2) SALAT- Prayer 3) ZAKAT- almsgiving 4) FASTING-during Ramadan 5) HAJI-pilgrimage Sunni Majority of Muslims belong to this division of Muslims. This was the division of the Ottoman Empire. These traditionalists believe that people of the faith should elect their leaders. Shiite Minority of Muslims belongs to this division. This was the division of the Safavid Empire. These fanatics wanted Ali, a descendant of Mohammed to be the leader; they believe all leaders should be descendants of Mohammed. The assassination of Ali was significant to the Shiites. People of the Book Jews and Christians, religions who also believe in one God and religions which Muslims are tolerant of. Jihad The "Sixth Pillar" of Islam. Muslims use the word in a religious context to refer to three types of struggles: an internal struggle to maintain faith, the struggle to improve the Muslim society, or the struggle to defend Islam.