|1) Which of the following is not an example of how structural adaptations give a bird its ability to fly?|
A) The bird wing has more bones than the human arm.
B) Many of the wing bones are hollow but are reinforced internally with trusses.
C) Feathers are produced by special pits in the birdʹs skin.
D) The weight of flight muscles is largely kept off the wings.
E) Interlocking barbules make the feathers strong.
|A) The bird wing has more bones than the human arm.|
|2) Structure in the living world is organized at hierarchical levels. Which of the following choices lists|
several of these, from least inclusive to most inclusive?
A) cell, molecule, organ, organ system, tissue, organism
B) molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
C) molecule, cell, organ, organ system, tissue, organism
D) cell, molecule, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
E) molecule, cell, tissue, organ system, organ, organism
|B) molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism|
| 3) Which one of the following is an example of a tissue?|
A) heart muscle
B) a heart
C) a red blood cell
D) the circulatory system
E) the liver
|A) heart muscle|
| 4) Which one of the following is not a major category of animal tissue?|
| 5) Fingernails are a component of the __________ system.|
| 6) Which one of the following best represents an adaptation to increase the surface-to-volume ratio?|
A) the long bones of a giraffe
B) the smooth skin of an earthworm
C) the multilobed sacs in the lungs
D) the striations of skeletal muscle
E) the smooth muscle inside the intestine
|C) the multilobed sacs in the lungs|
|7) A mouseʹs cells are much more active metabolically than a frogʹs. Which of the following organs or|
systems would you expect to have a larger surface area in a mouse than in a same -sized frog?
C) circulatory system
D) All of the choices are correct.
E) None of the choices are correct.
|D) All of the choices are correct.|
|9) If you were to move from around sea level to a much higher altitude, your body would respond|
A) profuse sweating.
B) a decrease in the diameter and number of capillaries close to your bodyʹs surface.
C) an increase in energy production.
D) a decrease in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.
E) an increase in the number of your red blood cells.
|E) an increase in the number of your red blood cells.|
| 10) When you exhale, you|
A) release oxygen and carbon dioxide.
B) exchange CO2 for O2.
C) take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide to the blood.
D) take up carbon dioxide and release oxygen.
E) remove CO2 from the body.
|E) remove CO2 from the body.|
| 11) In the final phase of respiration, body cells|
A) release CO2 to red blood cells.
B) take up O2 from red blood cells.
C) increase in size to accommodate the reuptake of O2.
D) migrate to the circulatory system.
E) release CO2 and take up O2.
|E) release CO2 and take up O2.|
| 12) The body structure where gas exchange occurs is called the|
A) integumentary surface.
B) respiratory surface.
C) capillary surface.
D) exchange network.
E) capillary network.
|B) respiratory surface|
| 13) Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must|
A) be terrestrial.
B) have a high ratio of body surface area to volume.
C) have a low ratio of body surface area to volume.
D) be aquatic and nearly spherical.
E) have a special kind of hemoglobin.
|B) have a high ratio of body surface area to volume.|
| 14) Which of the following organisms has a respiratory system that does not require a circulatory|
|15) Which of the following statements about fish gills is true?|
A) They have a surface area that is much greater than the body surface.
B) They aid in reproduction.
C) Because of their efficiency, they only need a small surface area.
D) They have a poor blood supply.
E) Like lungs, they have an exhale/inhale function.
|A) They have a surface area that is much greater than the body surface.|
|16) The chief advantage of gas exchange in water is that|
A) water can contain more oxygen than air.
B) carbon dioxide is easier to eliminate in water than in air.
C) no energy is used to keep the exchange surface wet.
D) less energy is required to ventilate gills as compared to lungs.
E) contact between the respiratory surface and the gas-containing medium is more efficient in
water than in air.
|C) no energy is used to keep the exchange surface wet.|
|17) Which of the following statements regarding breathing and circulation is false?|
A) Insects lose very little water by using a tracheal system to breathe.
B) Air-breathing animals lose water by evaporation.
C) The tracheal system of insects consists of a series of branching air tubes that extend from the
surface to deep inside the body.
D) A terrestrial animal spends much more energy than an aquatic animal ventilating its
E) The circulatory system of insects is not involved in transporting oxygen.
| D) A terrestrial animal spends much more energy than an aquatic animal ventilating its|
| 18) The tracheal system of an insect is most like which of the following?|
A) the exhaust system of an automobile
B) the electrical wiring in a home
C) the air duct system in a building
D) a river system draining a large region
E) leaves on a tree
|C) the air duct system in a building|
| 19) Evolutionary movement of aquatic animals to land involved an intermediate individual that|
A) could fly.
B) is called a ʺpodafish.ʺ
C) evolved a tracheal system of branching internal tubes.
D) had both gills and lungs.
E) had ribs to protect the heart and lungs.
|C) evolved a tracheal system of branching internal tubes.|
| 20) Which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to its|
overall body size?
A) frog B) snake C) turtle D) bear E) newt
|21) Which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the|
A) alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, pharynx, larynx
B) alveoli, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, larynx, pharynx
C) alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx
D) alveoli, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, pharynx, larynx
E) alveoli, trachea, bronchioles, bronchi, pharynx, larynx
|C) alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx|
| 22) Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across|
|23) Cigarette smoke can affect macrophages that reside in our lungs for the purpose of|
A) preventing emphysema.
B) engulfing particles and microorganisms.
C) enhancing oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
D) producing antibodies.
E) maintaining the appropriate pH and moisture content within the lungs.
|B) engulfing particles and microorganisms.|
| 24) Cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke cause cancer due to the|
A) effects they have on our breathing mechanisms.
B) toxins in the smoke.
C) resistance they have for products of our immune system.
D) immunosuppressive effects they display.
E) lack of antioxidants in smoke
|B) toxins in the smoke.|
| 25) The maximum amount of air that a human can inhale and exhale is called the|
A) tidal volume.
B) vital capacity.
C) maximum capacity.
D) physiological volume.
E) inhalation capacity.
|B) vital capacity.|
| 26) Compared to the vital capacity, how much air can lungs actually hold?|
A) always less
B) sometimes less
C) always more
D) sometimes more
E) always the same amount
|C) always more|
| 27) Inhalation in humans is achieved by|
A) contraction of muscles in the lungs.
B) contraction of the diaphragm.
C) relaxation of the diaphragm and chest muscles.
D) relaxation of the diaphragm.
E) contraction of the diaphragm and chest muscles.
|E) contraction of the diaphragm and chest muscles.|
| 28) When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to|
A) rising oxygen concentration
B) rising carbon dioxide concentration
C) falling oxygen concentration
D) falling carbon dioxide concentration
E) falling nitrogen concentration
|B) rising carbon dioxide concentration|
| 29) What part of the human brain contains the primary breathing control center?|
D) medulla oblongata
|D) medulla oblongata|
| 30) Medullary breathing centers directly sense and respond to|
A) blood pH and CO2 concentration.
B) blood O2 concentration.
C) alveolar CO2 concentration.
D) alveolar O2 concentration.
E) blood pH and O2 concentration.
|E) blood pH and O2 concentration.|
|31) An oxygen molecule enters an alveolus. If it is to reach a red blood cell, its next step must be to|
A) pass down a bronchiole to an air sac.
B) diffuse across the alveolar epithelium.
C) dissolve in the fluid lining the alveolus.
D) dissolve in the plasma of blood surrounding the alveolus.
E) diffuse across a capillary epithelium.
|C) dissolve in the fluid lining the alveolus.|
| 32) Oxygen is mostly transported through the body|
A) dissolved in the blood.
B) dissolved in red blood cells.
C) bound to hemoglobin.
D) bound to dissolved iron.
E) bound to carbon.
|C) bound to hemoglobin.|
| 33) In the capillaries of the body, oxygen released from hemoglobin first diffuses into the|
A) blood plasma.
B) pulmonary veins.
C) pulmonary arteries.
D) interstitial fluid.
|A) blood plasma|
|34) What prompts a newborn baby to start to breathe?|
A) an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the babyʹs blood
B) a decrease in the concentration of oxygen in the babyʹs blood
C) a change in the temperature on the surface of the skin
D) exposure to air
E) an increase in the pH of the babyʹs blood
|C) a change in the temperature on the surface of the skin|