Anatomy I final

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Which of the following is not part of the axial skeletal system?

Pectoral girdle

A synovial joint is an example of a

diarthrosis

The clavicle articulates with the scapula at the

acromion

The foramen magnum is found in the

occipital bone

An epiphyseal line in a mature long bone is an example of a

synostosis

The depression on the posterior surface at the distal end of the humerus where the elbow fits in is the

olecranon fossa

Each of the following bones is a component of the orbital complex, except the

nasal bone

Which of the following is not a characteristic of articular cartilage?

It secretes synovial fluid

Which of these is a forearm bone?

radius

The suture that forms the articulation of the two parietal bones is the

sagittal suture

Dislocations are quite painful due to stimulation of pain receptors. One place these receptors are absent is

inside the joint cavity

The radius articulates with the

all of the following (carpals, ulna, humerus)

Which of the following bones is not part of the appendicular skeleton?

sacrum

Extending your leg away from the midline of the body (to the side) is termed

abduction

The bones that form the palm are the

metacarpals

The nasal complex consists of all the following bones, except the

zygomatic

Which of the following movements is a good example of depression?

opening the mouth

Which of the following is not a part of the pelvis?

lumbar vertebrae

Which of the following are the primary spinal curves, present at birth?

thoracic and sacral

What bone articulates with the coxal bone at the acetabulum?

femur

The elbow joint is a ______ joint; while the hop is a _____ joint

hinge, ball-and-socket

The vertebral column contains ___ thoracic vertebrae, ___ cervical vertebrae, and ___ lumbar vertebrae

12, 7, 5

The largest component coxal bone is the

ilium

In a triaxial articulation

movement can occur in all three axes

The ribs articulate with the __________ of the vertebrae.

transverse processes

The greater sciatic notch is a feature on the

ilium

Humans normally have ____ pairs of ribs.

12

The joint that permits the greatest range of mobility of any joint in the body is the

shoulder joint

Which of the following is the heel bone?

calcaneus

Gesturing "yes" with the head depends on which cervical vertebral?

atlas

Which ligament connects the clavicle and the acromion?

acromioclavicular

The only direct connection between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton is where the

clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum

The role of the sinuses include

making the skull lighter and production of mucus that moistens and cleans the air (both A and B)

Which of these constitutes the pectoral girdle?

clavicles and scapulae

In the knee joint, the medial and lateral meninsci

act as cushions and conform to the shape of the articulating surfaces

Your friend Gregg is hit in the jaw and when looking at him, his face looks misaligned. You immediately take him to the emergency room and are not surprised to learn that he has a broken

mandible

In the anatomical position, the ulna is located ____ to the radius

medial

As you move cranially along the spinal column, the vertebral foramina become ___, while the vertebral bodies become _____

larger; smaller

The ligament that provides support to the front of the knee joint is the

patellar ligament

The distal carpal bones are

trapezium, capitate, trapezoid, hamate

Fibrous connective tissue called ______ acommodates brain growth in infants

frontanels

The olecranon is on the ____ and the olecranon fossa is on the ____

ulna; humerus

The "rotator cuff" of the shoulder includes every muscle except

coracohumeral

Which of the following is NOT a tarsal bone?

capitate

The largest and strongest articulate at the elbow is the

humero-ulnar joint

Of the following bones, which is unpaired?

vomer

The ligamentum nuchae

helps to hold the head in an upright position

Which of the following ligaments assists in stabilization of the shoulder joint?

coracoacromial and coracoclavicular (both A and C)

Jack gets into a fight and is punched in the nose. Which of the following bones might be fractured?

Ethmoid bone

All of the following statements are true, except one. Which one?

The more movement a joint allows, the stronger the joint

Which of the following statements below is correct?

The longus capitis is a spinal flexor muscle that flexes the neck

In the process of saltatory action potential propagation,

A, B, and D. The action potential is triggered by graded depolarization of the initial segment; at threshold, sodium channels begin to open rapidly; local currents depolarize a sensitive spot distant from the active zone

Muscular force can be adjusted to match different loads by

A, B, and C. Recruiting larger motor units, recruiting more motor units, varying the frequency of action potentials in motor neurons

Which of the following is a member of the hamstring group?

all of the following. Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

The rabies virus travels to the CNS via

retrograde axoplasmic transport

A muscle that unlocks the knee joint is the

popliteus

Which of the following is false when a muscle contracts?

Zones of overlap get smaller

Put the following in order.

2. Sodium channels open on the muscle cells
1. Calcium is released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum
4. Troponin binds to calcium
5. Tropomyosin slides away from the active site on the actin
3. Myosin binds to the active site on actin

Branches that may occur along an axon are called

collaterals

Neurons in which dentritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called

unipolar

The action potential is conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by

transverse tubules

When the pectoralis major muscle contracts, it produces

flexion at the shoulder joint

The powerful abductor muscle of the arm is the

deltoid

In a sarcomere, thick filaments contain the ____ in the A band, while the thin filaments contain the ____ in the I band

M line; Z line

Which statement regarding connective tissue below is correct?

The epimysium surrounds the entire muscle, while the endomysium surrounds muscle fibers

Muscles that laterally rotate the thigh include all of the following, except the

gracilis

I bands in skeletal muscle are composed of

thin filaments but no thick filaments

The _____ somatic nervous system controls the skeletal muscles

somatic

What is it called if a second stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase has ended and a second, more powerful contraction occurs

wave summation

In skeletal muscle contraction, which of the following binds to myosin?

ATP

Which of the following does not move the shoulder girdle?

trapezius

Which of the following does not influence the time necessary for a nerve impulse to be transmitted?

whether or not the impulse begins in the CNS

Creatine phosphokinase works to

remove the phosphate from creatine phosphate and add it to ADP

The ____ flexes and adducts the wrist while the ___ extends and abducts the wrist

flexor carpi ulnaris; extensor carpi radialis

The all-or-none principle states that

all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials

The largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the

astrocytes

Compared to cardiac muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells

have a shorter refractory period

What type of contraction are you doing when holding a bag of groceries?

isometric

If the chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane were completely blocked,

synaptic transmission would fail

A muscle that assists the muscle that is primarily responsible for a given action by specifically preventing movement at another joint is

fixator

Which of the following is not an anterior neck muscle?

pterygoid muscle

______ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal

Ependymal cells

What enzyme is involved in smooth muscle contraction?

myosin light chain kinaser

The muscle that pronates the forearm and opposes biceps brachii is the

pronator quadratus

The following are the steps involved in transmission at a cholinergic synapse

2, 5, 4, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3

Which of the following interactions between electrical and chemical gradients does not lead to the extablishment of a neuron's resting potential?

electrical forces push sodium ions out of the cell

A muscle that dorsiflexes the foot is the

tibialis anterior

Which lever would be most effective for lifting a very heavy load a short distance?

second class lever

Which of the following is not an oblique muscle?

rectus abdominis

Which of these muscles is not a member of the quadriceps group?

vastus femoris

Which of the following is not involved in creating the resting potential of a neuron?

membrane permeability for sodium ions greater than potassium ions

The _____ muscle is the strongest jaw muscle

masseter

Which of the following muscles is found within the pelvic floor?

all of the above. Pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, coccygeus, deep transverse perineal

The ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is

calcium

Tension of a single muscle fiber depends on

all of the above. Detree of overlap, frequency of stimulation, number of pivoting cross-bridges, fivers resting length at the time of stimulation

The ____ is superficial and inserts on the clavicles and scapular ____ ; while the ___ is deep and inserts on the scapular ____.

trapezius, spines; rhomboid, border

IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)

are local hyperpolarizations

During the Cori cycle, in the liver

glucose is produced from lactic acid

Each of the following terms is used to describe the shape of a muscle, except

hallucis

The following are the main steps in the generation of an action potential

4, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3, 5

The pituitary gland and thyroid gland are organs of the ______ system

endocrine

Which of the following bones is classified as "irregular" in shape?

vertebra

A type of intracellular junction that stops materials from crossing an epithelium between cells is termed an

occluding junction

The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are

keratinocytes

When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of

negative feedback

A rib is an example of a ____ bone

short

Epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by

a basal lamina

The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the

stratum corneum

The ankle is ____ to the knee.

distal

The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the

metaphysis

The epithelia that line body cavities and blood vessels are classified as

simple squamous

The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ____ layer

reticular

The chin is _____ to the nose.

inferior

_____ are cells that develop into osteoblasts

osteoprogenitor cells

Simple cuboidal epithelium is found

forming the kidney tubules

Which plane divides the body into right and left parts?

sagittal

All of the following of the subcutaneous layer, except it

is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane

Which of the following is a type of secretion in which the cell lyses?

holocrine

The central canal of an osteon contains

blood vessels

The ____ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.

apocrine sweat

The serous membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called the

peritoneum

Connective tissue fibers are produced mainly by

fibroblasts

The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification.

4, 2, 1, 3.
4. MEsenchymal cells aggregate
2. Osteoblasts differentiate within mesenchymal connective tissue
1. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized
3. Spicules of bone radiate out from the ossification centers

In a penetrating wound, ____ divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.

fibroblasts

Which of the following terms refers to the upper arm?

brachial

The framework of stroma of organs such as the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes is made up of ____ tissue.

reticular connective

Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a

cartilage model

______ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.

dendritic cells

The mediastinum

B&C. separates the pleural cavities and contains the pericardial cavity

Which of the following membranes line cavities that communicate with the exterior of the body?

muccous

If the papilla of the hair follicle is destroyed,

the follicle will lose its blood supply

Secondary ossification centers occur

in the epiphyses

Which of the following organs is not contained within the abdominal cavity?

ovary

Which of these refers to the dense connective tissue that surrounds a muscle and blends with the tendon?

deep fascia

Skin can regulate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because

stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective-tissue components of the skin even after injury

The liver is primarily located in the ____ quadrant.

right upper

Myosatellite cells are found in association with

skeletal muscle

Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways, except that it

inhibits calcitonin secretion

While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?

5

while standing erect, the direction of caudal is

downward

Microscopic examination of a tissue reveals a loose framework of fibers embedded in a large volume of fluid ground substance and adipocytes and mast cells fibers. This tissue would most likely have come from the

superficial fascia between skin and muscle

Vitamin D is necessary for

absorption calcium and phosphate ions

Jaundice is indicated by

a yellowish skin coloration

Which term is incorrectly identified?

crural-calf

After a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the

external callus

Examination of a tissue sample reveals groups of cells united by junctional complexes and interlocking membranes. The cells have one free surface and lack blood vessels. The tissue is most likely ____ tissue.

epithelial

Which assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it remains peaked. This is a sign of

dehydration

A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a _____ fracture.

pott

Endocrine glands empty their products into ____ and are referred to as ____ glands, while exocrine gland secretions empty into ____ or onto surfaces.

interstitial fluid; ductless; ducts

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