The depression on the posterior surface at the distal end of the humerus where the elbow fits in is the
Dislocations are quite painful due to stimulation of pain receptors. One place these receptors are absent is
inside the joint cavity
The vertebral column contains ___ thoracic vertebrae, ___ cervical vertebrae, and ___ lumbar vertebrae
12, 7, 5
The joint that permits the greatest range of mobility of any joint in the body is the
The only direct connection between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton is where the
clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum
The role of the sinuses include
making the skull lighter and production of mucus that moistens and cleans the air (both A and B)
In the knee joint, the medial and lateral meninsci
act as cushions and conform to the shape of the articulating surfaces
Your friend Gregg is hit in the jaw and when looking at him, his face looks misaligned. You immediately take him to the emergency room and are not surprised to learn that he has a broken
As you move cranially along the spinal column, the vertebral foramina become ___, while the vertebral bodies become _____
Which of the following ligaments assists in stabilization of the shoulder joint?
coracoacromial and coracoclavicular (both A and C)
Jack gets into a fight and is punched in the nose. Which of the following bones might be fractured?
All of the following statements are true, except one. Which one?
The more movement a joint allows, the stronger the joint
Which of the following statements below is correct?
The longus capitis is a spinal flexor muscle that flexes the neck
In the process of saltatory action potential propagation,
A, B, and D. The action potential is triggered by graded depolarization of the initial segment; at threshold, sodium channels begin to open rapidly; local currents depolarize a sensitive spot distant from the active zone
Muscular force can be adjusted to match different loads by
A, B, and C. Recruiting larger motor units, recruiting more motor units, varying the frequency of action potentials in motor neurons
Which of the following is a member of the hamstring group?
all of the following. Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
Put the following in order.
2. Sodium channels open on the muscle cells
1. Calcium is released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum
4. Troponin binds to calcium
5. Tropomyosin slides away from the active site on the actin
3. Myosin binds to the active site on actin
Neurons in which dentritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called
In a sarcomere, thick filaments contain the ____ in the A band, while the thin filaments contain the ____ in the I band
M line; Z line
Which statement regarding connective tissue below is correct?
The epimysium surrounds the entire muscle, while the endomysium surrounds muscle fibers
What is it called if a second stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase has ended and a second, more powerful contraction occurs
Which of the following does not influence the time necessary for a nerve impulse to be transmitted?
whether or not the impulse begins in the CNS
The ____ flexes and adducts the wrist while the ___ extends and abducts the wrist
flexor carpi ulnaris; extensor carpi radialis
The all-or-none principle states that
all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials
If the chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane were completely blocked,
synaptic transmission would fail
A muscle that assists the muscle that is primarily responsible for a given action by specifically preventing movement at another joint is
The following are the steps involved in transmission at a cholinergic synapse
2, 5, 4, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3
Which of the following interactions between electrical and chemical gradients does not lead to the extablishment of a neuron's resting potential?
electrical forces push sodium ions out of the cell
Which lever would be most effective for lifting a very heavy load a short distance?
second class lever
Which of the following is not involved in creating the resting potential of a neuron?
membrane permeability for sodium ions greater than potassium ions
Which of the following muscles is found within the pelvic floor?
all of the above. Pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, coccygeus, deep transverse perineal
Tension of a single muscle fiber depends on
all of the above. Detree of overlap, frequency of stimulation, number of pivoting cross-bridges, fivers resting length at the time of stimulation
The ____ is superficial and inserts on the clavicles and scapular ____ ; while the ___ is deep and inserts on the scapular ____.
trapezius, spines; rhomboid, border
A type of intracellular junction that stops materials from crossing an epithelium between cells is termed an
When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of
The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ____ layer
All of the following of the subcutaneous layer, except it
is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane
The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification.
4, 2, 1, 3.
4. MEsenchymal cells aggregate
2. Osteoblasts differentiate within mesenchymal connective tissue
1. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized
3. Spicules of bone radiate out from the ossification centers
The framework of stroma of organs such as the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes is made up of ____ tissue.
Which of the following membranes line cavities that communicate with the exterior of the body?
Which of these refers to the dense connective tissue that surrounds a muscle and blends with the tendon?
Skin can regulate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because
stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective-tissue components of the skin even after injury
Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways, except that it
inhibits calcitonin secretion
While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?
Microscopic examination of a tissue reveals a loose framework of fibers embedded in a large volume of fluid ground substance and adipocytes and mast cells fibers. This tissue would most likely have come from the
superficial fascia between skin and muscle
After a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the
Examination of a tissue sample reveals groups of cells united by junctional complexes and interlocking membranes. The cells have one free surface and lack blood vessels. The tissue is most likely ____ tissue.
Which assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it remains peaked. This is a sign of
Endocrine glands empty their products into ____ and are referred to as ____ glands, while exocrine gland secretions empty into ____ or onto surfaces.
interstitial fluid; ductless; ducts
How would removing hydroxyapatite from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?
The bone would be more brittle.
The reflex movement of the head toward a loud noise is directed by the mesencephalon. Which nuclei accomplish this?
A highly sensitive tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with specialized cells of the stratum germinativum is a
tactlie (merkel) disk
The medial nuclei of the thalamus
connect emotional centers in the hypothalamus with the frontal lobe.
As the ____ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular and tibial nerve
The ___ nerve distributes to the tripecs brachii, while the ___ nerve distributes to the biceps brachii.
Mary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compressed?
The posterior nuclei of the thalamus include the
A,B,C. medial geniculate, lateral geniculate, pulvinar
The ____ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
During embryonic development, which of the following secondary brain vesicles will form the cerebrum?
Viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will
lead to muscle weakness or paralysis
A very large, fast-adapting tactile receptor that is composed of a single dendrite enclosed by concentric layers of collagen that detects deep pressure is a
Sensory information that arrives at the CNS is routed according to the ___ of the stimulus.
both A and C. modality and speed
After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the
What loss would result from cutting through the medial lemniscus of the right side?
loss of fine touch sensation on the left side of the body
All of the following are true of a prickling pain sensation, except that the
receive conscious attention
Which cervical plexus nerve does not distribute to the skin of the shoulder and upper chest?
The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the
Which of the cranial nerves is named for the fact that it "wanders", that is, innervates structures throughout the thorax and abdomen?
Sensory encoding of the perceived location of the stimulus depends on
the specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated
A patient develops a tumor of a cranial nerve that leads to difficulty in spreading from a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?
Sensory innervation of the lower teeth and gums is by the ___ nerve
mandibular branch of the trigeminal
Jean needs to have a tooth in her mandible filled. Her dentist injects a local anesthetic to block pain afferents in one of her cranial nerves. What cranial nerve does the dentist numb?
The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the
Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
loss of sensation in the torso
Joe begins to experience mood swings and disturbed thirst and hunger. Imaging studies indicate that a brain tumor is the likely cause of these disorders. In what part of the brain is the tumor most likely located?