A transcription factor that binds to an enhancer and stimulates transcription of a gene.
alternative RNA splicing
A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns.
Segments of noncoding DNA that help regulate transcription of a gene by binding proteins called transcription factors.
The addition of methyl groups (—CH3) to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as a long-term control of gene expression.
A part of the three-dimensional structure of a transcription factor that binds to DNA.
A DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes.
euchromatin ("true chromatin")
The more open, unraveled form of eukaryotic chromatin that is available for transcription.
The selective synthesis of DNA, which results in multiple copies of a single gene, thereby enhancing expression.
The parental effect on gene expression whereby identical alleles have different effects on offspring, depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or via the sperm.
Nontranscribed eukaryotic chromatin that is so highly compacted that it is visible with a light microscope during interphase.
The attachment of acetyl groups to certain amino acids of histone proteins.
One of the class of proteins comprising the antibodies.
A collection of genes with similar or identical sequences, presumably of common origin.
The basic, beadlike unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound around a protein core composed of two copies of each of four types of histone.
A gene found in viruses or as part of the normal genome that is involved in triggering cancerous characteristics.
The "guardian angel of the genome," p53 is expressed when a cell's DNA is damaged. Its product, p53 protein, functions as a transcription factor for several genes.
A giant protein complex that recognizes and destroys proteins tagged for elimination by the small protein ubiquitin.
A normal cellular gene corresponding to an oncogene; a gene with a potential to cause cancer but which requires some alteration to become an oncogene.
DNA segments very similar to real genes but which do not yield functional products.
This gene codes for Ras protein, a G protein that relays a growth signal from a growth-factor receptor on the plasma membrane to a cascade of protein kinases that ultimately results in the stimulation of the cell cycle. Many ras oncogenes have a point mutation that leads to a hyperactive version of the Ras protein that can lead to excessive cell division.
Nucleotide sequences, usually noncoding, that are present in many copies in a eukaryotic genome. The repeated units may be short and arranged tandemly (in series) or long and dispersed in the genome.
Transposable elements that move within a genome by means of an RNA intermediate, a transcript of the retrotransposon DNA.
A gene whose protein products inhibit cell division, thereby preventing uncontrolled cell growth (cancer).