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When does most cardiovascular development occur?

b.
Between the fourth and seventh weeks of gestation

The function of a patent opening between the left and right atria in a fetus is that it allows:

a.
right-to-left blood shunting.

At birth which of the following statements is true?
a.
Systemic resistance and pulmonary resistance fall.
b.
There is a shift in gas exchange from the placenta to the lung.
c.
Systemic resistance falls and pulmonary resistance rises.
d.
Systemic resistance and pulmonary resistance rise

b.
There is a shift in gas exchange from the placenta to the lung.

When does systemic vascular resistance in infants begin to rise?

Once the placenta is removed from circulation

Congenital heart defects that cause acyanotic congestive heart failure usually involve:

left-to-right shunts

Congenital heart defects that cause hypoxemia, and therefore cyanosis, usually involve

left-to-right shunts

Which congenital heart defects occur in trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and Down syndrome

d.
Ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus

An infant has a continuous-machine type of murmur best heard at the left upper sternal border throughout systole and diastole. The infant has a bounding pulse and a thrill on palpation. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect?

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

An infant has a crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur located between the second and third intercostal spaces along the left sternal border. There is also a wide fixed splitting of the second heart sound. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect?

atrial septal defect

An infant has a loud, harsh, holosystolic murmur and systolic thrill that can be detected at the left lower sternal border that radiates to the neck. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect?

ventricular septal defect

Coarctation of the aorta (COA) may be located:
a.

c.
between the origin of the aortic arch and the bifurcation of the aorta in the lower abdomen

Classic manifestations of a systolic ejection murmur, cyanosis of the lower extremities, and decreased or absent femoral pulse are indicative of an older child with which of the following congenital defects?

d.
Postductal aortic coarctation

What is the most important clinical manifestation of aortic coarctation in the neonate

CHF

14. Children with tetralogy of Fallot compensate to relieve hypoxic spells by:

squatting

15. The infant diagnosed with a small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is likely to present:

asymptomatically

The foramen ovale is covered by a flap that creates a check valve allowing blood to flow unidirectionally from the _____ to the _____.

right atrium; left atrium

17. Which of the following is consistent with the cardiac defect of transposition of the great vessels?

The aorta arises from the right ventricle.

18. Which of the following describes total anomalous pulmonary venous return?

Pulmonary venous return is to the right atrium

Which heart defect produces a systolic ejection murmur at the right upper sternal border that transmits to the neck and left lower sternal border with an occasional ejection click?

c.
Aortic stenosis

20. Which heart defect produces a systolic ejection click at the upper left sternal border with a thrill palpated at the upper left sternal border

pulomin stenosis

Which heart defect results in a single vessel arising from both ventricles providing blood to both the pulmonary and systemic circulations?

d.
Truncus arteriosus

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