What are Nutrients?
Chemicals in foods that our bodies use for growth & function
What do Nutrients Provide?
-maintains body tissues
-regulates physiological processes
Macronutrients and Micronutrients
Organic and Inorganic
-needed in large quantities
-carbohydrate, fat, protein
-caveats: alcohol, water
-needed in small quantities
-do not provide energy
-vitamins and minerals
-contains element Carbon (C)
-carbohydrates, lipids, protein, vitamins
-water and minerals
Fat-soluble and Water-soluble
-stored in body
-no need to consume faily
-toxicity may occur
-found in largely fat-containing foods
-not largely stored
-consume adequate amounts daily/weekly
-found in many foods
-Vitamins B (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, B6, etc.) & C
Classification of Minerals
Major Minerals & Trace Minerals
- >100mg/day from diet,at least 5g in body
-Calcium, phosophorus, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, sulfur
- <100 mg/day from diet, <5g in body
-iron, zinc, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, selenium, iodine
What is Energy?
The capacity to do work
What is a Calorie?
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1 degree Celsius
-used to measure how may Calories a food contains
Why do we care about Nutrition?
-"because everybody eats"
-"relationship between diet and disease"
-learn how to prevent malnutrition
-maximize health outcomes
-prevent obesity, which leads to deaths because of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes
Nutrition Research Classification
-Human Intervention Studies
-Nutrition Laboratory-Research Studies
Identifying Reliable Nutrition Information
-where did it come from?
-results interpreted accurately?
-without these, health will decline
-your body cannot make enough, therefore you must obtain these nutrients through proper diet
How many Calories per gram does carbohydrates, fats, proteins, alcohol have?
Carbohydrates = 4 Calorie/ gram
Protein = 4 Calorie/gram
Fat = 9 Calorie/gram
Alcohol = 7 Calorie/gram
-follow "free living populations"
-strengths: able to sample high numbers
-limitations: subjects may give false information
-many nutrition recommendations are based on this type of study
Human Intervention Studies
-randomized controlled trials
-experimental and control groups
-purpose is to show cause and effect
-a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study is the ideal type of Intervention Study
-strengths: controlled group
-limitations: expensive, hard to generalize, false information from subjects
Nutrition Laboratory-Research Studies
-to determine the efects of dietary variables on an organism, cell, gene, or molecule
-limitations:effects on experiment may hinder health of the subject