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The male and female genital organs are homologous before 8 weeks of gestation

true

Production of sperm begins during fetal life

false, puberty

The human zygote has a total of 23 chromosomes.

false, gametes do 46

Prolactin helps maintain biosynthesis of testosterone

true

The vaginal wall does not contain mucus-secreting glands.

true

At puberty the uterus descends from the abdomen to the lower pelvis between the bladder and rectum.

true

Estrogen is needed for the closure of long bones after the growth spurt in puberty.

true

Small amounts of progesterone are steadily secreted by the adrenal cortex

true

During the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, estrogen levels begin to dip and progesterone levels begin to rise

false

The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for arteriolar constriction necessary for penile erections.

false, for dilation

1. Until the _____ week of gestation, the initial reproductive structures of the male and female appear the same.
a.
third
b.
eighth
c.
twentieth
d.
thirtieth

eighth

2. The major hormonal determinant of sexual differentiation in utero is:
a.
estrogen.
b.
progesterone.
c.
growth hormone.
d.
testosterone.

testosterone.

3. Which of the following shows a correct sequence in the hormonal stimulation of the reproductive systems leading to puberty in the female?
a.
Anterior pituitary, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH)
b.
Hypothalamus, FSH, anterior pituitary
c.
Anterior pituitary, FSH, LH
d.
GnRH, hypothalamus, FSH, LH

GnRH, hypothalamus, FSH, LH

4. Which hormone is linked to obesity and early puberty?
a.
Inhibin
b.
Leptin
c.
Activin
d.
Follistatin

Leptin

5. The Skene glands are located on either side of the:
a.
introitus.
b.
urinary meatus.
c.
clitoris.
d.
vestibule.

urinary meatus.

6. The function of Bartholin glands is to secrete mucus in order to:
a.
lubricate inner labial surfaces and enhance motility of sperm.
b.
lubricate the urinary meatus and vestibule.
c.
maintain the acid-base balance to discourage proliferation of pathogenic bacteria.
d.
lubricate the cervix and enhance movement of the penis during intercourse

lubricate inner labial surfaces and enhance motility of sperm.

7. What factors defend the vagina from infection?
a.
An acid pH between 4 and 5
b.
A thin squamous epithelial lining
c.
Douching or use of vaginal spray
d.
Low estrogen levels

An acid pH between 4 and 5

8. At puberty the vaginal pH:
a.
increases.
b.
decreases.
c.
stabilizes.
d.
fluctuates.

decreases.

9. The _____ is lined with columnar epithelial cells.
a.
perimetrium
b.
endocervical canal
c.
myometrium
d.
vagina

endocervical canal

10. Where is the usual site of fertilization of an ovum?
a.
Distal end of the fallopian tubes
b.
Fimbriae of the fallopian tubes
c.
Ampulla of the fallopian tubes
d.
Os of the fallopian tubes

Ampulla of the fallopian tubes

11. The usual site of cervical dysplasia or cancer in situ is the point at which the:
a.
squamous epithelium of the cervix meets the cuboidal epithelium of the vagina.
b.
columnar epithelium of the cervix meets the squamous epithelium of the uterus.
c.
squamous epithelium of the cervix meets the columnar epithelium of the uterus.
d.
columnar epithelium of the cervix meets the squamous epithelium of the vagina

columnar epithelium of the cervix meets the squamous epithelium of the vagina

12. Having ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicle develops into a(n):
a.
atretic follicle.
b.
thecal follicle.
c.
corpus luteum.
d.
functional scar

corpus luteum.

13. Which immunoglobulin is secreted by mucosal secretions of the cervix?
a.
IgA
b.
IgE
c.
IgG
d.
IgM

IgA

14. The equivalent to the ovaries in women is the _____ in men.
a.
epididymis
b.
spermatic cord
c.
vas deferens
d.
testes

testes

15. A surge of which hormone changes the ovulatory follicle into the corpus luteum?
a.
FSH
b.
LH
c.
GnRH
d.
Progesterone

b.
LH

16. During the menstrual cycle, ovulation is directly caused by a:
a.
gradual decrease in estrogen levels.
b.
sudden increase of LH.
c.
sharp rise in progesterone.
d.
gradual increase in estrogen levels

sharp rise in progesterone.

17. Which anatomic structure secretes FSH, LH, and GnRH?
a.
Hypothalamus
b.
Ovaries
c.
Anterior pituitary
d.
Adrenal cortex

Anterior pituitary

18. During menstrual cycles in which ovulation occurs, basal body temperature (BBT):
a.
increases.
b.
decreases.
c.
fluctuates around 37° C (98° F).
d.
rises consistently above 37.8° C (100° F).

fluctuates around 37° C (98° F).

19. _____ are a pair of glands that lie posterior to the urinary bladder in the male.
a.
Seminal vesicles
b.
Prostate glands
c.
Cowper glands
d.
Parabladder glands

Seminal vesicles

20. Penile erections begin:
a.
before birth.
b.
shortly after birth.
c.
shortly before puberty.
d.
after puberty.

before birth.

21. The major difference between male and female sex hormone production is that:
a.
LH has no apparent action in a man.
b.
in a man sex hormone production is relatively constant.
c.
estradiol is not produced in a man.
d.
in a man GnRH does not cause the release of FSH.

in a man sex hormone production is relatively constant.
c.

22. Spermatogenesis occurs in the:
a.
epididymis.
b.
rete testes.
c.
seminiferous tubules.
d.
vas deferens

seminiferous tubules.

23. Testosterone causes all of the following except:
a.
baldness.
b.
increased libido.
c.
acne.
d.
decreased cholesterol

decreased cholesterol

24. Which immunoglobulin is contained in breast milk?
a.
IgA
b.
IgE
c.
IgG
d.
IgM

IgA

25. Which hormone promotes development of the lobular ducts in the breasts?
a.
Progesterone
b.
Prolactin
c.
Oxytocin
d.
Estrogen

Estrogen

26. What causes the vasomotor flushes (hot flashes) that are associated with declining ovarian function with age?
a.
Decreased estrogen levels
b.
Increased progesterone levels
c.
Increased estrogen levels
d.
Rapid changes in estrogen levels

Rapid changes in estrogen levels

27. Which of the following is not a normal characteristic of aging of the male reproductive system?
a.
Reduced sperm count
b.
Slower, less forceful ejaculations
c.
Testicular atrophy and softening
d.
Longer time to achieve full erection

Reduced sperm count

stimulates theca cells of the ovarian follicle to produce androgens

Luteinizing hormone

relaxes the myometrium and prevents lacatation until fetus is born

progesterone

induces the conversion of androgens to estrogens

follicle-stimulating hormone

acts on the leydig cells to regulate testosterone secretion

luteinizing hormone

in combination with progesterone, controls menstrual cycle

estrogen

serolgoy

antigen-antibody reaction

biopsy

tissue sampling

pap smear

cytologic exam

culture

microbe identification

female fertility test

hormonal assay

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