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Define Physiology

The science that deals with the functions of an organism or its parts

Define Cytology

The Study of cells

Define Interstitial

Pertaining to the space between tissues

What is the smallest unit of life?

The Cell

Cell/Plasma Membrane

Delicate structure that encloses the cytoplasm and forms the outer boundary of a cell.

What are the four stages of Mitosis?

Prophase- Chromatin becomes organized
Metaphase- Chromosomes align, nucleoulus disappear
Anaphase- Two daughter cells start to divide
Telophase- Cell division is completed

What is tissue?

Group of specialized cells joined together to perform a function.

What are the four types of tissue?

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

Define Dermatology

Diagnosis and treatmentof skin disorders.

What are the three layers of the skin?

Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous

What do epithelial cells produce?

Keratin which waterproofs the skin and protects the epidermis and underlying structures from injury, drying and invasion of foreign organisms.

What do Melanocytes produce?

Melanin which gives skin it's color and absorbs ultraviolet light.

What layer of skin is called the "True Skin"?

Dermis

What is the Dermis composed of?

Connective tissue, collagen, elastic fibers, blood vessels, hair follicles, nerve ending, smooth muscles and seat/oil glands.

What does Subcutaneous skin contain?

Connective tissue, adipose tissue and nerve endings.

What are Sudoriferous glands and what do they do?

Sweat glands that provide cooling by producing perspiration which evaporates when the body is hot.

What do nerve endings in the skin do?

Carry impulses to and from the central nervous system.

What are the accessory structures of the untegumentary system?

Hair and nails.

What do the nails do?

Protect many sensitive nerve ending found at the end of the digits.

What do the eyelashses/eyebrows do?

Protects the eyes from foreign particles.

Define sprain

A traumatic injury to tends, ligaments or muscles around a joint.

Define strain

Damage usually musculat that results from excessice physical force.

Define Articulation

The point of contact between bones and cartilage or teeth and bones alson known as a joint,

What are the the two groups of the skeletal system?

Axial Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton

How many bones are in the skull?

22 bones

Which ribs are known as "True Ribs"?

The first seven pairs that arrach directly to the sternum and vertebrea

What ribs are attached only to the seventh rib?

The next three sets also know as false ribs.

What ribs are attached only to the lumbar spine?

The last two sets know as floating ribs.

What is the clavicle?

Collar bone

What are the three sections of the pelvic girdle?

Illium-largest section
Ishium-articulates with the ilium and pubis
Pubis-symphysis pubis joins the two pubic bones

What is the femur?

Longest stronges and heaviest bone of the body.

What are two functions of skeletal muscles?

Providing movement, maintaining body posture

What does the masseter muscle do?

Raises the mandible for cheweing

Flexion

Decreases the angle of a joint. forearm moves towards the upper arm

extension

Increase the angle of a joint forearm moves away from the upper arm

Abduction

Moves a body part away from the midline arm is extended away from the body

Adduction

Moves a body part toward the midline, arm is moved toward the body

Supination

palm is turned upward

Pronation

palm is turned downward

Eversion

twists a body part outward turning the sole of the foot outward

Inversion

Twist a body part inward truing the sole of the foot inward

Nueron

Basic structural and functional unit of the nervous systme and conduct impulses.

Dendrites

Thin receptive branches that differ greatly in size, shape and number and transmit impulses to neron cell bodies.

What are three types of nuerons?

Sensory Neuron
Interneuron
Motor Nueron

What composes the centeral nevrous system?

Brain and Spinal Cord

Cerebrum

Largest and most superiorly situated portion of the brain

Frontal Lobe

Associated with higher mental proscesses (memory)

Parietal Lobe

Associated with general sensation

Brain Stem

Consists of the mid-brain, pons, and medulla oblongata

Pons

Relays impulses for some cranial nerves

Medulla Oblongata

Inferior most portion of the brain before the spinal cord. Controls functions like breathing and heart beat.

Spinal Cord

Conducts motor and sensory impulses to and from the brain

What are the three layers of the Meninges?

1.Dura Mater-Tough outter layer
2. Arachnoid Membrane-delicatd middle layer made of web like connective tissue
3. Pia Mater- vascular inner layer that adhere brain to the spinal cord

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Clear, watery liquid that surrounds the brain. Its a protective cushion and exchanges nutrients and waste.

Sympthetic Division

Fight or flight response

Parasympathetic Dinision

Conserves and Restores energy

Iris

Pigmented structure that gives the eye it's color.

Refraction

The bending of light rays

Convergence

Medical movement of the two eyeballs so they are both directed toward the object being viewed.

Auricle (Pinna)

Cartilage located on each side of the head that collects sound from the environment

Cerumen

"Earwax" Protects external auditory canal against small foreign debris.

Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum)

A thin membran stretched across the auditory canal that separates the outer middle ear. The function is to transport sound to the auditory ossicles through vibration.

Auditory Ossicles

Three ossicles (bones) that transmit vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the fluid in the inner ear.

What are the three ossicles?

1. Malleus-hammer
2. Incus-anvil
3. Stapes-stirrup

Endolymph

Fluid located in the inner ear that ripples when the issicles move, which causes the cochlea to move

Cochlea

A small snail shaped organ that convers the mechanical ripples to the endolymph into nerve impulses

Semicircular Canal

Three semicircular canals situated perpendicularyly to each other in the temporal bone that stimulates nerve endings.

Cardiology

The study of the heart and diseases associated with it.

Vascular

Pertaining to or containin many blood vessels

Cardi/o, coron/o

Heart

What type of tissue is blood

A connective tissue

Erythocytes

Red blood cells that carry oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide away from the cells.

Leukocytes

White blood cells that seve as the bodys primary defense against infection.

Thrombocytes

Platelets cells that assist in coagulation.

Apex

pointed end of the heart formed by the tip of the left ventricle

Myocardium

Middle layer of the heart wall. Thickest layer and responsible for the pumping action.

What nervous system controls the condustion system of the heart?

Autonomic Nervous System

What does calcium in the blood do?

It increases the strenght of the hearts contraction.

Sinoatrail Node (SA Node)

Pacemaker of the heart located in the right atrium.

Bundle Braches

Transmits impulses throughout the ventricula walls.

What is the purpose of blood vessles and what are they made of?

To carry blood throught the body and made of smooth involuntary muscles.

Aorta

Largest artey in the body

Brachial arteries

Used to take blood pressure

Radial arteries

Supply blood to the hands

Femoral arteries

Supply blood to lower extermities

What are arterioles?

Very small almost mircoscopic arteries.

what are one-way valves in the viens?

Valves that prevent the backflow of blood in the viens

Apena

Absence of breathing

What does the nasal chambers do to the air you breath?

Filter, moisten and warms the air.

Pharynx (Throat)

Connects the oral and nasla cavities

Epiglottis

Flap of tissue that covers the entrance to the larynx to prevent food from entering the trachea

Larynx

where the vocal cords are located

Trachea

Windpipe

Bronchiles

Subdivision of the brochi that provide a passageway for air to reach the lungs

Alveoli

Oxygen exchanges with carbon dioxide by diffusion throught eh alveolar and capillary walls

lungs

Right lung has three lobes left long have two lobews

Pleural Membrane

Enclose and protects the longs

Diaphragm

The primary muscle of respirations

Antigen

A foreign agent that stimulates white blood cells to make anitbodies

Hodgkin's Disease

a malignant tumor of the lymph nodes

Spleen

Organ located in the upper left quadrant of the adbomen that stores red blood cells and destroy red blood cells also makes white blood cells

Adrenal Glands

Two endocrine glands located above the kidneys that produce the hormone adrenalin

Goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland

Insulin

Hormone produced by the pancrease and released into the bloodstream which allows sugar to lave the blood and enter the cells

Hypothalamus

A structure in the brain that creates chemicals that are secreted to the pituitary gland to stumulate the release of hormones.

Oxytocin

A hormone that stimulates contration of the muscles of the uterus

Thyroid Gland

Secretes the iodine containing hormon thyroxin which controls the rate of cell metabolism.

What are the charactistics of Hypothyroidism

1. Decreased basal metabolism
2. Absence of sweating
3. Constan fatigue
4. Weight gain
5. Slow heart rate

What does the adrenal medulla secrete?

Adrenalin

What does the destruction of the islet cells lead to?

Diabetes Mellitus

Bile

A yellow/orange fluid produced by the liver that helps digest fats

Cirrhosis

liver disease with a deterioration of the liver cells

Crohn's Disease

Inflammation of the GI tract marked by bouts of diarrhea abdominal cramping and fever

Insulin

hormone produced in the pancrease and released into the blood stream

enter/o

intestines

Movement of food

Peristalsis moves food throught the gastrointestinal tract through successive muscular contrations

Digestion

A process that uses mechanical and chemical breakdown of food so it can be absorbed

Small Intestine

Structure where the greatest amount of chemical digestion and food absorption occurs

Ectopic Prgnancy

Abnormal pregnancy in which the fertilized egg implants itself outside the uterine cavity

Pyelonephritis

Inflammation of the nephrons and renal pelvis of one or two kidneys

Renal Calculi

Soild mass that many form in the urinary tact (kidney stone)

Vas Deferens (Seminal Duct)

Carries sperm to the ejaculatory duct

Where does fertilization of the egg normally occur?

Fallopian tubes

Endometrium

Inner ayer of th euterus that sloughs off every 28-35 days

What is the durations of a norma menstrual cycle?

24-35 days with an average lenght of 28 days.

What is ovulation?

The release of a oocyte(egg) from the ovary into the fallopian tube. Occurs normally on the 14th day of the cycle

Renal Cortex

Outer layer of the kidney that is reddish in color

How much urine does the average adult excrete in 24 hours?

1-2 liters with 95% being water and 5% waste products

Micturition

Process by which urine is expelled from the body.

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