5 Kingdoms that all living things fall into
The diffusion of water across a permeable membrane
The spontaneous movement of a substance down its concentration gradient, from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated
Large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms
Bonds: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acid
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes
Cellular uptake of biological molecules and particulate matter via formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane
A type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances are taken up by a cell. It is carried out by some protists and by certain immune cells of animals (in mammals, mainly macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells)
The cellular secretion of biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles containing them with the plasma membrane
The chromosome containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell
A complex of rRNA and protein molecules that functions as a site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of a large and a small subunit. In eukaryotic cells, each subunit is assembled in the nucleolus
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration
An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum and synthesize some products, notably non-cellulose carbohydrates
The membrane at the boundary of every cells hat acts as a selective barrier, regulating the cel's chemical composition
A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
One of several compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three types of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers and enantiomers
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides)
A protein loosely bound to the surface of a membrane or to part of an integral protein and not embedded in the lipid bilayer
Typically a transmembrane protein with hydrophobic regions that extend into and often completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane and with hydrophilic regions in contact with the aqueous slution on either side of the membrane (or lining the channel in the case of a channel protein)
any protein embedded in a cell membrane that touches the inside and outside of the cell
Phases of Mitosis
1- G2 of Interphase
6- Telophase & Cytokinesis
Phases of Meiosis
1- Prophase I
2- Metaphase I
3- Anaphase I
4- Telophase I & Cytokinesis
5- Prophase II
6- Metaphase II
7- Anaphase II
8- Telophase II & Cytokinesis
A plant in which the Calvin cycle is preceded by reactions that incorporate CO2, into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies of CO2 for the Calvin cycle
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaption for photosynthesis in arid conditions. In this process, carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is concerted to oragnic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed
Plant that uses three-carbon PGA as the first intermediate for carbon fixation.
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
By-product of Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O - yields - C6H12O6
Where is chloroplast found
In the Thylakoid membrane
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
Electron Transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms
cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles
cell with a nucleus (surrounded by its own membrane) and other internal organelles
one of several forms of an element, each containing the same number of protons in their atoms but a different number of neutrons
a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one pair of valence electrons
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA
An enzyme that links ribonucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription.
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain.
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.