Chapt 28 "Reform, Rebellion, Reaction" (1960-1974)

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LBJ's War on Poverty: Job Corps, VISTA, Headstart

Born poor in TX, admired FDR dedicated him to reform; one of the ppl, Liberal, Democrat; good at behind the scenes politics; declared "war on poverty" and passed Equal Opportunity Act: 10 programs, head start originally for ppl in compromised econ. backgrounds, VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America) domestic equiv to Peace Corps, Job Corps provide economic opportunity for youths w/ job training; done b/c of "Great Society" vision: ALL enjoy the benefits of living in a democracy, EVERYONE will have an opportunity; job skills a must! so edu more supported by govt

The (Earl) Warren's Court's major decisions

Baker, Gideon, Escobedo, Miranda; Warren appointed by Eisenhower and was a surprise; registered R and heads mostly conservative R court but is liberal in decisions; "when the generation of 1980 receives the Bill of Rights, the doc won't have the same meaning as it did to us"; national over state standards, human over property, rights

Baker

Outlaws gerrymandering; due to sparsely popped areas having tons of reps but dense urban areas having few

Gideon

(states are also subject to Bill of Rights); when the accused cannot afford a lawyer, states must provide a lawyer w/out charge

Escobedo

Provides attorneys during questioning (before charged) at no cost

Miranda

Police officers must inform suspects of their rights upon arrest

SCLC

Southern Christian Leadership Conference; based in Atlanta; popular, mainstream civil rights activists; MLK and nonviolent!

SNCC and Sit-ins

Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee; non-hierarchical, decentralized structure, more grass-roots level; originally nonviolent but become part of Black Panthers; Woolworth's had segged eating areas and they sent groomed and proper students (in waves more at a time) to sit at the counter, trained not to react; later influenced by Malcolm X

CORE and Freedom Rides

Congress of Racial Equality; non mainstream, "non violence"; wanted to integrate interstate transportation; >400 blacks and whites ride buses together going N to S; severely beaten and attacked; Attorney Gen Robert F Kennedy deploys federal troops @ bus stations to protect riders; later influenced by Malcolm X

1963 March on Washington

MLK's "I have a dream" speech; MLK works press to his advantage and launches highly-publicized protests/marches; expected 100k ppl but ~500k actually comes (# maybe downplayed?);

Title VII

Part of Civil Rights Act of 1964; no more discrimination race or gender; helped women out!

Malcom X and Nation of Islam

Background: not everyone agrees w/ MLK and nonviolence; vocally preaches black nationalism and SEPARATISM; goes to Mecca and comes back different and now only likes black pride, expressed openness to working with other blacks and whites; says mislead followers and we can get along; assassinated by member of the Nation of Islam; Nation of Islam is same but for black men

Black Power - Panthers

Carmichael (SNCC Chairman in CA & does 1st in CA), Seale, Newton (these two organize Blank Panther Party for Self-Protection); got a lot of press but not as much support as SCLC; emphasis on racial pride and arms "black is beautiful"; black-fisted gloved w/ head down in defiance; young impatient militant membership who see SCLC as stalemate; start of radical activists moving in a frightening direction

Chavez and United Farm Workers

Background: 1960s Mexican migrant workers have same rights as AAs in 1860s; Chavez grew up in this and then founded United Farm Workers (UFW); follows MLK and educated; capitalized on consumer consciousness and does boycotts on lettuce and then grapes to win wage increase; Hispanics get more cultural support like the teaching of S American Spanish

SDS and Port Huron Statement

1962; Students for a (d)emocratic Society; branch of U of MI; annoyed b/c voting age is 21 so these ppl are left of politics; anti racist/poverty language, stronger political power for colleges; coincides with Free Speech Movement

Free Speech Movement

Problems with restriction of opinion booths; Berkley in CA in '64 fall and ROTC actively recruits; Savio sets up table to protest this and is arrested (anti-war not allowed but ROTC can stay?); riot with >700 arrests and college says now students can protest

AIM and Alcatraz

1968 originally to attack Indian problems in the cities and to establish "survival schools" but expanded; "red power"; 1969: occupy Alcatraz island and held original deed to this land, fed govt does acknowledge some treaty violations; dramatic demos failed to achieve specific goals but won end of relocation and termination policies, greater tribal sovereignty, services, protection of NA religious practices, restored/compensated ancestral lands

Woodstock

Background: rock and folk music repped counterculture/ political left; this music festival drew 400k ppl to a farm in Bethel, NY in 1969

"The Pill"

Gave women freedom and control; didn't require action at the right time and nearly 100% effective; Margaret Sanger got rich friend McCormick to fund research by Gregory Goodwin Pincus with Min-Chueh Chang and John Rock; tested Enovid in Cuba but problems w/ blood clots; some feminists (ppl didn't of Sanger's involvement) thought it was just the convenience of men; problems: higher chance of cancers, must go to doctor (not covered by group insurance plans), no STD protection; (summary: not popular at first but now is)

"Transnational Feminism"

Connections for feminism made in early 20th Century across globe like w/ Intl Alliance of Women in 1904 for suffrage; problems b/c of diff cultures and diff perspectives of discrimination (leaders were often part of countries that were imperealising other women, whites wanted equal rights others wanted economic development), addressed in themes of UN Decade for Women- Equality, Development, Peace; UN helped a lot w/ Commission ofn the Status of Women, a forum; 1948 accepted Declaration of Human Rights esp rejecting sex discrimination; intl scene went beyond US scene (12 yrs ahead in equal pay); 75 was Intl Women's Year and more later and 77 National Women's Year in TX w/ 2k ppl, gave ppl national agenda for women's movement; US is not always best

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Guarantees access for all Americans to public accommodations, public education, employment, voting; protections extended to Indians on reservations

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