Interpersonal Communication Midterm

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Interpersonal Communication Midterm

Intrapersonal Communication

1 Person

Communication that occurs within yourself, including your thoughts and emotions

Interpersonal Communication

2-3 People

-Informal.
-High Degree for potential intimacy.
-A means for which our society is constructed.

Small Group Communication

3-13

Public Speaking

1 to many

Organizational Communication

1 to many

Chains of command

Mass Media

1 to millions/billions

Impersonal Communication

Small talk, Communication that treats people as objects, or that responds only to their roles, rather than to who they are as unique people.

Linear model of Communication

one-way view of communication that assumes a message is sent by a source to a receiver through a channel

(Source)--------->(Receiver)

Co-Linear model of Communication

Two-way communication, person A speaks person B listens and vise versa.

(Source)<------>(Receiver)

Transactional Model of Communication

represents communication as a process in which speakers and listeners work together to create mutual meanings

-Encoding your thoughts and feeling into a intended message.
-Constantly Communicating
-Non-Verbal communication

Anita Taylor's Transactional Model

Source-Encoding an intended message
Receiver- Decoding an intended message
Receiver-Gives a response
Source-receives feedback

Perception

Selecting;Discriminating/Choosing
Organizing;Identify relationships/Compare/contrast/Categorize
-Interpretation;Assign meaning

Goals in relation to perception

-Process info while allowing other truths to exist.
-Check perceptions for validity

Relevant Observations about Human Beings

-Influenced by most obvious
-People cling to first impressions even if they are wrong.
-Observations are reflections of ourselves.
-People Favor negative over positive impressions.
-People blame differently for ourselves then others.

Principle of Proximity

Things that are close together belong together

Principle of Similarity

Things that look alike seem like they belong together

Principle of Closure

Things that look like something are assumed to be that thing.

Richard's Triangle of Meaning

-Referent (thing we are talking about)
-Frame of reference
-Symbols (Represent the referent)
Between the symbol and the referent the difference is arbitrary.

Characteristics of language

-Rule Governed
-Culture Specific
-Arbitrary verbal symbol system
-Permits abstraction

Hirokawa's Ladder of abstraction

Concrete
Abstract

Sapir & Whorf

Language affects culture and use and vise versa

Syntax

Rules that determine structure of language

Semantics

Rules for assigning meaning to symbols
-event:something happens
-Observance of event
-label experience
-Put experience in general context

Denotative

dictionary meaning of a word

Connotative

personal meaning

Characteristics of Nonverbal Communi.cation

-Constant communication
-Communicate non-verbal even without conscious thought.
-Non-verbal does not have the same general understood meaning as a symbol.
-Non-Verbal communicating is ambiguous.
-Any conflict between verbal & non-verbal most people believe non-verbal.

Functions of Nonverbal with verbal communication

-Reinforcement
-Substitution
-Control or Status
-Hide or Modify Verbal communication.
-Can contradict verbal communication
-regulates interactions
-Carries cultural messages
-Carries relationship messages.

Proxemics

Use and perceptions of social and personal space
-Edward Hall
-Intimate distance; Skin to 18inches
-Personal distance; 18 inches to 4 feet
-Social distance; 4 feet to 12 feet
-Public distance; 12 feet +

kinesics

-Body motions or gestures]
-Emblems
-Illustrators
-Affect displays
-Regulators
-adapters (self/objects)

Haptics

-Touch communication
-Positive effect
-Playful function
-Control
-Ritualistic
-Task
-Hybrid
-Accedental

Paralanguage

-Voice qualities
-Vocalizations
-Vocal characteristics
-Vocal qualifiers
-Vocal segregaters

Chronemics

-Time

Artifacts

-Personal
-Shared
-Public

Self-Concept

Perceptions about yourself
-Reflected appraisal
-Significant others
-Social comparison

Desired Self

Who we want to be

Perceived Self

How we see ourselves

Presenting Self

How we present ourselves to others

Self-Disclosure

Reasons we don't
-Reciprocity
-Appropriateness
-Fear
-Vulnerable/Loss of self/Abandonment

Listening

Reasons we don't
-Too much info
-Time/speech differential
-Noise
-Assumptions before conversation starts.
-Talking has more control
-Poor Training
non listening
-Pseudo
-Selective
-Defensive
-Ambushing
-Insensitive
Active listening
-Eliminate non listening
-Monitor listening to include all aspect of communication
-Paraphrase ask for clarification
-Give detailed feedback
-Ask for clarification at appropriate times
-Explain interruptions verbally
-Use time/speech differential to refocus.

Johari Window

a model that describes the realstionship between self disclosure and self awareness.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

A method of classifying human needs and motivations into five categories in ascending order of importance: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization

1. Physiological needs
2. safety
3.Love and Belonging
4.Self esteem
5. Self actualization
6. Need to know
7.Aesthetic need to experience beauty

William Schutz's Theory of needs

-Affection need
-Inclusion
-Control (lead/Follow)

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