History Final Study Guide

Created by SanDiegoBaller2 

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Compass Rose

This tells you the directions: North, South, East, and West

Cardinal Points

Points on a compass: North, South, East, and West

Intermediate Points

Points on a compass: Northwest, Southwest, Northeast, and Southeast

Longitude

Other Word for Meridians on a map

Meridian

Other Word for Longitude on a map

Latitude

Other Word for Parallels on a map

Parallel

Other Word for Latitude on a map

Absolute Location

Location used with exact grid address on a map

Relative Location

Location (For example,) He's near the PE Locker Room

Isthmus

Narrow Strip of Land between 2 Bodies of Water

Oceans, Seas, Rivers, and Lakes

4 Major types of bodies of water

Mountains, Hills, Plains, and Plateaus

4 Major Landforms

Plateau

Raised, flat area of land

Elevation

Height above the land above sea level

Relief

Difference of heights in 2 physical features

Tribe

Group with common territory, language, culture, value, religion, and social structure

Adobe

Building material out of earth and straw

Pueblos

Homes built of adobe by Native Americans

Hunter-gatherers

These people hunted animals, and gathered berries for food

Corn, Beans, and Squash

The 3 Sisters

Clan

Family with a common ancestor

Sapa Inca

The "King of the Incas"

Immigrants

People who move to another place to make a permanent home there

Regions

Parts of the earth that share common characteristics

Timberline

Elevation where trees don't grow anymore

Weather

Condition of the earth's atmosphere over a short period of time

Climate

Usual pattern of weather in an area over a long period of time

Contiguous

(This means, like they are all together with nothing separating them)

Aqueduct

Structure that carries water

Causeway

Raised highway over water

Maize

Corn

Potlatch

Feast held by wealthy families of the Northwest

Terrace

Leveled off strip of land

Tribute

People paid this when they lost wars

Precipitation

Moisture that falls as rain, snow, or sleet

Glaciers

Large, thick bodies of slowly moving ice, found in mountains, and polar regions

Virtue

Good Characteristic

Bering Strait

What body of water (Today) was the land bridge on? (Asian Hunters)

Beringia

The land bridge the asian hunters went across

Tenochitlan

Capital of the Aztec Empire

Cuzco

Capital of the Inca Empire

Mound Builders

People who built mounds

Mississippians

Most successful Mound Builders

Anasazi

Cliff-Dwelling Tribe

Mound Builders and Anasazi

2 Major Native American cultures living in the present US 2,000 years ago

Maya

These people were extremely skilled farmers, master builders, built pyramids, they studied the sky and made calenders

Aztec

These people built 3 causeways, built aqueducts, and had a rigid noble system

Inca

These people conquered by peaceful means, and they built a road system

Plains Indians

These people followed bison, acquired horses, and counted coo

Iroquois

These Indians sided with Britain, built longhouses, and formed a confederation

Algonquin

These Indians sided with France, built roundhouses, and were weaker than their rivals

Asian Hunters

The First people who arrived in America

Rise

The Ice Age made the water level ____

Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic

Major Oceans of the world

Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia

Major Continents of the world

Tropic of Cancer

23.5º North Latitude

Tropic of Capricorn

23.5º South Latitude

Tropics

Area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn

Equator

Main line of Latitude

Prime Meridian

Main line of Longitude

International Dateline

180º East Longitude

Gulf of Mexico

Large body of water west of Florida that connects to the Atlantic Ocean

Chesapeake Bay

Bay east of our nation's capital

Mississippi River

Largest River by volume in the US

Ohio River

River that forms a border between Indiana and Kentucky

Missouri River

River that forms a border between Iowa and Nebraska

Hudson River

River that empties into NY Harbor

Colorado River

River that flows through the Grand Canyon

Columbia River

River that flows into the Pacific from the Northwest

Rio Grande

River that forms the border between Texas and Mexico

Cape Cod

This looks like a fishhook

Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario

Great Lakes

Rocky Mountains and Appalachian Mountains

Borders of the Great Plains

Appalachian Mountains

Main Mountain Chain in East USA

Rocky Mountains

First mountain chain west of the Great Plains

Sierra Nevada Mountains

Mountain range that separates California and Nevada

Environment affects Lifestyle

Major idea of Unit 1, with all of the Native American Tribes

Lords

These people ruled their manors

Serfs

Peasants who would work for protection

Manor

Large estate a lord lived in

Caravel

Small ship with a broad bow

Gunpowder

Without this, most weapons would not be made

Printing Press

With the invention of this, Marco Polo was able to publish his book

Colony

Settlement made by a parent company

America

England's colony

Presidios

Spanish settlements: Military

Pueblos

Spanish settlements: Economic

Missions

Spanish settlements: Religious

Peninsulares

Highest Spanish social class, born in Spain

Creoles

2nd Highest Spanish social class, had Spanish parents but were born in New Spain

Mestizos

3rd Highest Spanish social class, people of mixed Spanish and Indian

Conquistador

Spanish conquerer in 16th Century America

Astrolabe

Instrument that tells Latitude

Cartographer

Mapmaker

Louisiana

Area in the Mississippi Valley claimed by Robert de la Salle

Navigation

Science of piloting ships

Northwest Passage

Waterway through America to Asia

Viceroy

Governor of the Spanish Empire ruling in the Americas

Age of Exploration

Period during the 1400's and the 1500's during which sailors sailed and mapped the world

Mutiny

To seize control of the ship from the captain and officers

Plantation

A Large Farm

Indies

Indonesian Islands off the Asian Coast, and Columbus thought he was on these

Bahamas

The Islands Columbus was on (He thought he was on the West Indies)

Hispaniola

One of the first islands Columbus landed on

Cuba

Another one of the first islands Columbus landed on

New Spain and Peru

The 2 sections the Spanish claim was divided into

Mexico City and Lima

Present day capitals of Mexico, and Peru

Santo Domingo

1st Permanent Spanish settlement in America

St. Augustine

First permanent city in America

Lima

Current capital of Peru

Quebec

1st permanent French settlement in America

Isthmus of Panama

Balboa and his men walked across this isthmus

476

Year of the Fall of Western Rome

711-1492

Years of the Reconquest

1453

Year of the Fall of the Byzantine Empire

1492

Year of the 1st voyage of Columbus

1517

Year that the Reformation began

1519

Year that Cortes entered the Aztec Empire

1531

Year that Pizzaro entered the Inca Empire

1608

Year of the founding of Quebec

15th-17th Centuries

Centuries of the Age of Exploration

Lief Ericson

1st European in America

Marco Polo

Wrote Description of the World

Dias

This man sailed to the tip of Africa, then came back to Portugal

De Gama

This man sailed from Portugal around Africa to India

Columbus

This man claimed America for Spain

4

# of Columbus' voyages

Taino

The Indians Columbus met

Prince Henry

This man started the School of Navigation

Amerigo Vespucci

America was named after this man, who was the first to say America was a new continent

Ponce de Leon

This man looked for the Fountain of Youth, but ended up in Florida

Cabot

This man made the first English Claim in America

Montezuma

Aztec Emperor

Pizarro

This man conquered the Inca

Atahualpa

This man was taken captive by Francisco Pizzaro of the Spaniards

Cartier

This man sailed up the Saint Lawrence River and claimed Canada for France

De Champlain

This man established Quebec, and he's called the Father of New France

De la Salle

This man claimed the Mississippi for France

Magellan

This man's crew was the 1st to circumnavigate the globe

Balboa

This man claimed the Pacific, but he didn't realize that was the largest ocean in the world

Coronado

This man explored the Grand Canyon

De Soto

This man looked for the 7 cities of gold but found the Mississippi River

Quetzalcoatl

The Aztecs thought Cortes was this God

Fall of the Byzantine Empire

This event influenced exploration, because no one could travel to Asia by land anymore

Crusades

Series of wars fought by European Christians

Middle Ages

Period during which feudalism replaced centralized government and the Roman Catholic Church became a powerful force in Europe

Renaissance

Revival of interest in the arts

Protestant Reformation

Reformation in the Roman Catholic Church which improved the church

Reconquest

Time of attempting to recapture Spain from the Moors

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