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Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)

An annual FBI publication that summarizes the incidence and rate of reported crimes throughout the United States.

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

An annual survey of selected American households conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics to determine the extent of criminal victimization especially unreported victimization in the United States.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)

A U.S Department of Justice agency responsible for the collection of criminal justice data, including the annual National Crime Victimization Survey.

Crime Index

An inclusive measure of the violent and property crime categories, or Part I offenses, of the Uniform Crime Reports. The Crime Index has been a useful tool for geographic (state to state) and historical (year to year) comparisons because it employs the concept of a crime rate (the number of crimes per unit of population). However, the addition of arson as an eighth index offense and the new requirements with regard to the gathering of hate-crime statistics could result in new Crime Index measurements that provide less-than-ideal comparisons.

violent crime

A UCR offense category that includes murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.

property crime

A UCR offense category that includes burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.

clearance rate

A traditional measure of investigative effectiveness that compares the number of crimes reported or discovered to the number of crimes solved through arrest or other means (such as the death of the suspect ).

murder

The unlawful killing of a human being. Murder is a genetic term that in common usage may include first and second degree murder, manslaughter, involuntary manslaughter, and other similar offenses.

Part I offenses

A set of UCR categories used to report murder, forcible rape,robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson, as defined under the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Also called MAJOR CRIMES.

rape

Unlawful sexual intercourse, achieved through force and without consent. Broadly speaking, the term rape has been applied to wide variety of sexual attacks and may include same-sex rape and the rape of a male by a female. Some jurisdictions refer to same sex rape as sexual battery.

forcible rape (UCR)

The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. For statistical-reporting purposes, the FBI defines FORCIBLE RAPE as "unlawful sexual intercourse with a female, by force and against her will, or without legal or factual consent." Statutory rape differs from forcible rape in that in generally involves nonforcible sexual intercourse with a minor.

sexual battery

Intentional and wrongful physical contact with a person, without his or her consent, that entails a sexual component or purpose.

date rape

Unlawful forced sexual intercouse with a female against her will that occurs within the context of a dating relationship. Date rape, or acquaintance rape, is a subcategory of rape that is of special concern today.

robbery (UCR)

The unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear. Armed robbery differs from unarmed, or strong armed, robbery with regard to the presence of a weapon. Contrary to popular conceptions, highgway robbery does not neccessarily occur on a street and rarely in a vehicle. The term highway robbery applies to any form of robbery that occurs outdoors in a public place.

Assault (UCR)

An unlawful attack by one person upon another. Historically, assault meant only the attempt to inflict injury on another person; a completed act constituted the separate offense of battery. Under modern statistical usage, however, attempted and completed acts are grouped together under the generic term assault.

Aggravated assault (UCR)

The unlawful, intentional inflicting, or attempted or threatened inflicting, of serious injury upon the person of another. While aggravated assault and simple assault are standards terms for reporting purposes, most state penal codes use labels like first degree and second degree to make such distinctions.

Burglary (UCR)

The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft (excludes tents, trailers, and other mobile units used for recreational purposes). For the UCR, the crime of burglary can be reported if 1.)an unlawful entry of an unlocked structure has occured, 2.)a breaking and entering of a secured structure has taken place, or 3.)a burglary has been attempted.

Larceny-theft (UCR)

The unlawful taking or attempted taking,carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another. Motor vehicles are excluded. Larceny is the most common of the eight major offenses, although probably only a small percentage of all larcenies are actually reported to the police because of the small dollar amounts involved.

motor vehicle theft (UCR)

The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. Motor vehicle is defined as a self-propelled road vehicle that runs on land surface and not on rails....The stealing of trains,planes,boats, construction equipment, and most farm machinery is classified as larceny under the UCR Program, not as a motor vehicle theft.

Identity theft

A crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of information, such as Social Security and driver's license numbers, to obtain credit, merchandise, and services in the name of the victim. The victim is often left with a ruin credit history and the time-consuming and complicated task of repairing the financial damages.

Arson(UCR)

The burning or attempted burning of property, with or without the intent to defraud. Some instances of arson result from malicious mischief, some involve attempts to claim insurance monies, and some are committed in an effort to disguise other crimes, such as murder, burglary,or larceny.

Part II offenses

A set of UCR categories used to report arrests for less serious offenses.

National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)

An incident-based reporting system that collects data on every single crime occurrence. NIBRS data will soon supersede the kinds of traditional data provided by the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports.

dark figure of crime

Crime that is not reported to the police and that remains unknown to officials.

Crime typology

A classification of crimes along a particular dimension, such as legal categories, offender motivation, victim behavior, or the characteristics of individual offenders.

stalking

Repeating harassing and threatening behavior by one individual against another, aspects of which may be planned or carried out in secret.....Stalking might involve following a person, appearing at a person's home or place of business,making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or vandalizing a person's property. Most stalking laws require that the perpetrator make a credible threat of violence against the victim or members of the victim's immediate family.

cyberstalking

The use of the Internet, e-mail,and other electronic communication technologies to stalk another person.

hate crime

A criminal offense in which the motive is "hatred, bias, or prejudice, based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion,national origin,ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation of another individual or group of individuals. Also called bias crime.

corporate crime

A violation of a criminal statue by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees, or agents acting on behalf of and for the benefit of the corporation, partnership, or other form of business entity.

white-collar crime

Nonviolent crime for financial gain committed by means of deception by people whose occupational status is entrepreneurial, professional, or semiprofessional and that utilizes their special occupational skills and opportunities....Also, nonviolent crime for financial gain utilizing deception and committed by means of deception by anyone who has special technical and professional knowledge of business and government, irrespective of the person's occupation.

organized crime

The unlawful activities of the members of a highly organized,disciplined association engaged primarily in supplying illegal goods and services, including gambling,prostitution,loan sharking, narcotics, and labor racketeering.

transnational organized crime

Unlawful activity undertaken and supported by organized criminal groups operating across national boundaries.

malware

Malicious computer programs such as viruses, worms,and Trojan horses.

computer crime

Any crime perpetrated through the use of computer technology....Also, any violation of a federal or state computer-crime statute. Also called cybercrime.

computer virus

A computer designed to secretly invade systems and either modify the way in which they operate or alter the information they store....Virus are destructive software programs that may effectively vandalize computers of all types and sizes.

software piracy

The unauthorized duplication of software or the illegal transfer of data from one storage medium to another....Software piracy is one of the most prevalent computer crimes in the world.

spam

Unsolicited commercial bulk e-mail (UCBE),whose primary purpose is the commercial advertisement or promotion of a commercial product or service.

terrorism

A violent act or an act dangerous to human life in violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any state committed to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in futherance of political or social objectives.

domestic terrorism

The unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who is based and operates entirely within the United States and its territories without foreign direction and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.S government or population.

international terrorism

The unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who has some connection to a foreign power or whose activities transcend national boundaries against people or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population,or any segment thereof in futherance of political or social objectives.

cyberterrorism

A form of terrorism that makes use of high technology, especially computers and the Internet, in the planning and carrying out of terrorist attacks.

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