Language of Medicine Chap 14

69 terms by sammiy54

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Acquired Immunity

production of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen.

Adenoids

Mass of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx

Antibody

Protein produced by B cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens

Antigen

substance that the body recognizes as foreign; evokes an immune response. Most are proteins or protein fragments

Axillary Nodes

lymph nodes in the armpit

B Cell

Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and transforms into a plasma cell to secrete antibodies.

Cervical Nodes

Lymph nodes in the neck region

Complement System

Proteins in the blood that help antibodies and T-cells kill their target.

Cytokines

Proteins that aid and regulate the immune response

Cytotoxic T cell

T lymphocyte that directly kills foreign cells

Dendritic Cell

Specialized macrophage that digests foreign cells and helps B and T cells to mark antigens for destruction.

Helper T cell

Lymphocyte that aids B cells and cytotoxic T cells in recognizing antigens and stimulates antibody production

Immunity

Body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins. This includes natural and acquired.

Immunoglobulins

Antibodies that are secreted by plasma cells in response to the presence of an antigen

Immunotherapy

Use of immune cells, antibodies or vaccines to treat of prevent disease.

Inguinal Nodes

Lymph nodes in the groin region

Interferons

Proteins (cytokines) secreted by T cells to aid and regulate the immune response

Interleukins

Proteins (cytokines) that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes

Interstitial Fluid

Fluid in the spaces between the cells. This fluid becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries.

Lymph

Thin, watery fluid found within lymphatic vessels and collected from tissues throughout the body.

Lymph Capillaries

Tiniest lymphatic vessels

Lymphoid Organs

Lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland

Lymph node

A collection of stationary solid lymphatic tissue along lymph vessels

Lymph Vessel

Carrier of lymph throughout the body; empty lymph into veins in the upper part of the chest.

Macrophage

Large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues

Mediastinal Nodes

Lymph nodes in the area between the lungs in the thoracic cavity

Monoclonal Antibody

Antibody produced in a laboratory to attack antigens and to destroy cells

Natural Immunity

Protection that an individual inherits to fight infection.

Plasma Cell

Lymphocyte that produces and secretes antibodies.

Right Lymphatic Duct

Large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body.

Spleen

Organ near the stomach that produces, stores and eliminates blood cells.

Suppressor T cell

Lymphocyte that inhibits the activity of B and T lymphocytes

T cell

Lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland; works by destroying antigens or producing chemicals which are toxic to antigens.

Tolerance

The ability of T lymphocytes to recognize and accept the body's own antigens as self or friendly.

Thoracic Duct

Large Lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from below the diaphragm and from the left side of the body above the diaphragm.

Thymus gland

Organ in the mediastinum that conditions T lymphocytes to react to foreign cells and aids in the immune response.

Tonsils

Mass of lymphatic tissue in the back of the oropharynx

Toxin

Poison

Vaccination

Exposure of an individual to a foreign protein that provokes an immune response. The response will destroy any cell that possesses the antigen on its surface and will protect against infection.

Vaccine

Weakened or killed microorganisms, toxins, or other proteins given to induce immunity to infection or disease.

Immuno/o

protection

Lymph/o

lymph

Lymphaden/o

lymph node

Splen/o

spleen

Thym/o

thymus gland

Tox/o

poison

Ana-

again, anew

Inter-

between

AIDS

Group of clinical signs and symptoms associated with suppression of the immune system and marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems

Allergy

Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen

Lymphoma

Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue

Hodgkin Disease

Malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes

Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

B cell lymphomas

Multiple Myeloma

Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells

Thyoma

Malignant tumor of the thymus gland

Allergen

Substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity reaction in the body

Anaphylaxis

Exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substances

Atopy

Hypersensitive or allergic state involving an inherited predisposition

CD4+ cells

helper T cells that carry the CD4 protein antigen on their surface. HIV binds to CD4 and infects and kills T cells bearing the protein

HIV

virus that causes aids

Kaposi Sarcoma

Malignant lesion associated with AIDS; arises from the lining of capillaries and appears as red, purple, brown, or black skin nodules

Opportunistic Infections

infectious diseases associated with AIDS; they occur because HIV infection lowers the body's resistance and allows infection by bacteria and parasites that normally are easily contained

Protease Inhibitor

drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps to create new viral pieces for HIV

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor

drug that treats AIDS by blocking reverse transcriptase, an enzyme needed to make copies of HIV

Wasting Symdrome

weight loss, decrease in muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity

CD4+ cell count

Measures the number of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream of patients with AIDS

ELISA

Screening test to detect anti-HIV antibodies in the bloodstream

Immunoelectrophoresis

Test the separates immunoglobulins

Viral Load Test

Measurement of the amount of AIDS virus in the bloodstream

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