Chapter 14 - The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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Neural Cortex

Superficial layer of gray matter covering the cerebrum

Cerebrum

Seat of most higher mental functions. Conscious thoughts, sensations, intellect, memory, and complex movements all originate here

Hypothalamus

Contains centers associated with emotions, autonomic functions, and hormone production

Diencephalon

A structural and functional link between the cerebral hemispheres and the components of the brain stem

Mesencephalon

Contains nuclei that process visual and auditory information and control reflexes triggered by these stimuli

Pituitary Gland

Responsible for the integration of the nervous and endocrine systems

Pons

Relays sensory information to the cerebellum and thalamus. Includes tracts and relay centers, as well as nuclei involved with somatic and visceral motor control

Cerebellum

Coordinates complex somatic motor patterns. Adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord

Medulla Oblongata

Coordinates complex autonomic reflexes and controls visceral functions

Prosencephalon, Mesencephalon, and Rhombencephalon

The three primary brain vesicles

Prosencephalon

Forms the Telencephalon and the Diencephalon

Telencephalon

Becomes the Cerebrum

Rhombencephalon

Becomes the Metencephalon and the Myelencephalon

Metencephalon

Becomes the Cerebellum and Pons

Myelencephalon

Becomes the Medulla Oblongata

Functions of CSF

Cushioning delicate neural structures, supporting the brain, transportation of nutrients, chemical messengers, and waste products

Choroid Plexus

Produces and regulates CSF (ependymal cells in this object are responsible for it)

Internal Carotid Arteries and Vertebral Arteries

Provides the brain with arterial blood

Epidural Hemorrhage

When blood is forced between the dura mater and the cranium

Blood Brain Barrier

Isolates the brain's neural tissue from general circulation

Nucleus Gracilis and Nucleus Cuneatus

Pass somatic sensory information to the thalamus

Solitary Nucleus

Receives visceral sensory information

Olivary Nuclei

Relays information about somatic motor commands

Cardiac, Vasomotor, and Respiratory Rhythmicity Centers

The three reflex centers of the medulla oblongata

Cardiac Center (of Medulla Oblongata)

Regulates heart rate and force of contraction

Vasomotor Center (of Medulla Oblongata)

Regulates the distribution of blood flow

Respiratory Rhythmicity Centers (of Medulla Oblongata)

Sets the pace of respiratory movements

Reticular Formation

Gray matter with embedded nuclei that regulates autonomic functions

7-12 but not 8

Cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata

Gyri

Elevated ridges in the cerebral cortex

Sulci

Shallow depressions in the cerebral cortex

Cerebellum

Part of the brain that coordinates repetitve body movements

Diencephalon

Links the cerebrum with the brain stem

Diencephalon

Left thalamus, right thalamus, and hypothalamus are parts of which part of the brain

Hypothalamus

This is responsible for hormone production, emotion, and autonomic functions

Pituitary Gland

Major endocrine gland that interfaces the nervous and endocrine systems

Brain Stem

This processes information between the spinal cord and the cerebrum or cerebellum

Mesencephalon

Processes sight, sound, and associated reflexes as well as maintaining consciousness

Septum Pellucidum

A thin medial partition that separates the lateral ventricles

Origins of Ventricles

Neural tube encloses neurocoel, which then expands to form chambers (ventricles) lined with ependymal cells

Interventricular Foramen

The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle by this

Aqueduct of Midbrain

Connects the third and fourth ventricles

Association Areas

Integrate diverse information

Opposite Side

Cerebral hemispheres receives sensory information from, and sends motor commands to which side of the body

Primary Motor Cortex

Directs voluntary movements

Pyramidal Cells

Neurons of the primary motor cortex that form the corticospinal tract

Premotor cortex

Controls learned, repetitious and pattern motor skills. coordinates simultaneous and sequential actions, and is involved in the planning of movements that depend on sensory feedback

Broca's Area

Speech center that is present in only one hemisphere, this directs the muscles of the tongue and is active as one prepares to speak

Frontal Eye Field

Controls Voluntary eye movements

Primary Sensory Cortex

Receives somatic sensory information (touch, pressure, pain, vibration, taste, and temperature) and is capable of spatial discrimination: identification of body region being stimulated

Somatosensory Association Area

Integrates sensory input from the primary somatosensory cortex and allows us to determine the size, texture, and relationship of parts of objects being felt

Primary Visual Cortex

Receives visual information from the retinas

Visual Association Area

Uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (e.g. color, form, movment)

Primary Auditory Cortex

Interprets information from inner ear as pitch, loudness, and location

Auditory Association Area

Stores memories of sounds and permits perception of sounds

Primary Olfactory Cortex

Region of conscious awareness of odors; part of the primitive rhinencephalon, along with the olfactory bulbs and tracts and the remainder of the rhinencephalon in humans is part of the limbic system

Primary Gustatory Cortex

Located in the insula, this is involved in the perception of taste

Visceral Sensory Area

Located posterior to the gustatory cortex, this is involved in the conscious perception of visceral sensations like an upset stomach or full bladder

Vestibular Cortex

The posterior part of the insula and adjacent parietal cortex, this is responsible for conscious awareness of balance

Multimodal Association Areas

These receive input from multiple sensory areas and send outputs to multiple areas, including the premotor cortex

Multimodal Association Areas

These allow us to give meaning to information received, store it as memory, and compare it to previous experience and decide on action to take

Anterior Association Area (Prefrontal Cortex)

Involved with intellect, cognition, recall, and personality, this contains working memory needed for judgement reasoning, persistence, and conscience, and its development depends on feed back from the social environment

Posterior Association Area

Plays a role in recognizing patterns and faces and localizing us in space, as well as being involved in understanding written and spoken language (wernicke's area)

Limbic Association Area

This is part of the limibic system and it provides emotional impact that helps establish memories

Left

The dominant cerebral hemisphere in most people

Left

The cerebral hemisphere responsible for reading, writing, math, logic, decision making, speech, and language

Right

The cerebral hemisphere responsible for senses, recognition, insight, visual-spatial skills, intuition, and artistic skills

EEG (Electroencephalogram)

Assesses brain activity (waves) via electrodes placed on the skull

Alpha Waves

Type of brain waves found in healthy, awake adults at rest with eyes closed

Beta Waves

Higher frequency brain waves that are found in adults that are either concentrating or are mentally stressed

Theta Waves

Brain waves found in children and intensely frustrated adults; may indicate a brain disorder in adults

Delta Waves

Brain waves found during sleep or in awake adults with brain damage

Synchronization

A pacemaker mechanism that synchronizes electrical activity between the cerebral hemispheres

White Matter of the Cerebrum

Association, commissural, and projection fibers make up what matter in the cerebrum

Arcuate Fibers

These are short association fibers that connect one gyrus to another

Longitudinal Fasciculi

These are longer bundles of association fibers that connect the frontal lobe to other lobes in the same hemisphere

Commisural Fibers

Bands of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres (ie the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum)

Projection Fibers

Fibers that pass through the diencephalon and link the cerebral cortex with the diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord

Internal Capsule

This is made up of all ascending and descending projection fibers and is part of the cerebrum

Basal Nuclei

Masses of gray matter that are embedded in the white matter of the cerebrum and direct subconscious activites

Caudate Nucleus

Curving basal nuclei with a slender tail

Lentiform Nucleus

Basal nucleus made of the globus pallidus and the putamen

Basal Nuclei

These are involved in the subconscious control of skeletal muscle ton and the coordination of learned movement patterns (walking, lifting)

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