IT Infrastructure Exam 2

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False

True or False:
A multiplexer converts a digital signal to an analog signal for transmission over a voice-grade telephone line.

False

True or False:
The signal-to-noise ratio of a communication channel is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be transmitted.

False

True or False:
The data transfer rate of a magnetic or optical storage medium is the ratio of bits stored to unit of medium surface area.

False

True or False:
the speed at which data can be moved over a communication channel is called the channel's access time.

False

True or False:
Time division multiplexing is used in cable television networks to carry multiple messages on a single transmission medium.

True

True or False:
Digital still and motion video cameras employ a two-dimensional photosensor array located behind an optical lens.

True

True or False:
Multilevel coding uses more than two signal parameter levels to encode multiple bits within a single signal event.

False

True or False:
An amplifier extends the range of data transmission by retransmitting a signal.

True

True or False:
Broadband transmission divides the capacity of a transmission medium to implement multiple channels.

True

True or False:
Dynamic RAM requires frequent refresh cycles to maintain its data content.

True

True or False:
Digital audio tape (DAT) drives use helical scanning to achieve high storage density.

False

True or False:
Accurate transmission requires that signal-to-noise ratio be less than or equal to zero.

True

True or False:
In synchronous data transmission, a synchronous idle message signal is transmitted during periods when no data is being transmitted.

True

True or False:
A SCSI controller translates signals and is attached to two different buses.

True

True or False:
Frequency modulation encodes data by varying the time between wave peaks within an analog signal.

True

True or False:
An access to primary storage that is found within a cache is called a cache hit.

True

True or False:
Binary, trinary, and quadrary signals are all examples of digital signals.

False

True or False:
An electronic keyboard generates and escape code, which may be translated into ASCII character output by a keyboard controller.

True

True or False:
A compact disc read only memory (CD-ROM) is an optical storage medium that is written only during manufacture.

False

True or False:
As storage density increases, problems of data loss due to magnetic leakage and decay decrease.

True

True or False:
A laser printer requires a larger buffer than a dot matrix printer.

True

True or False:
Serial transmission sends bits one at a time using a single transmission line.

True

True or False:
The value of a binary signal parameter is compared to a threshold value to determine whether it represents a zero or a one.

True

True or False:
During a push operation, one or more register values are copied to the top of the stack.

False

True or False:
The CPU incurs a refresh cycle when it must access storage devices that are slower than its own cycle time.

False

True or False:
Parallel transmission cables usually occupy less space and are easier to route around computer system components than serial transmission cables.

False

True or False:
The access method of RAM is serial if bits are considered the unit of data access.

True

True or False:
Secondary storage is slower, cheaper, and less volatile than primary storage.

True

True or False:
A level one primary storage cache is generally implemented on the same chip as the CPU.

True

True or False:
With a lossy compression method, compressing then decompressing a file produces a result different from the original file.

True

True or False:
Attenuation is a term that describes loss of signal strength as it travels through a transmission medium.

False

True or False:
The print head of a liquid crystal printer forces liquid ink onto a page through a small nozzle.

True

True or False:
A complete cycle of a sine wave follows its full range from zero to positive peak, back to zero, to its negative peak, and then back to zero again.

False

True or False:
A phase change optical disk drive uses combination of optical and magnetic storage technologies.

True

True or False:
An individual display element of a video display surface is called a pixel.

True

True or False:
The control bus is used to transmit command, timing, and status signals between devices in a computer system.

False

True or False:
The system bus can be decomposed logically into three sets of bus lines: the address bus, the control bus, and the cache bus.

False

True or False:
The machine state is a register that always contains a pointer to the top of the stack.

True

True or False:
Packet switching is a type of time division multiplexing.

False

True or False:
A pixel is one seventy second of an inch.

True

True or False:
Type I error can only be decreased by increasing Type II error.

True

True or False:
In asynchronous transmission, blocks or characters arrive at unpredictable times.

False

True or False:
During interrupt processing, register values of a suspended process are stored in a buffer.

True

True or False:
Text pages may be converted to bit maps by an optical scanner. These bit maps are then input to an optical character recognition (OCR) program that generates ASCII or Unicode representation of the text.

False

True or False:
The frequency of a signal is a measure of its peak strength.

True

True or False:
Packet switching uses transmission capacity more efficiently than circuit switching.

True

True or False:
An amplifier increases the strength of a signal, including both the encoded message and any noise that may be present.

False

True or False:
Many standard recording formats for cartridge tapes have been defined by the IEEE.

False

True or False:
Doubling buffer size always halves the number of bus cycles used to transfer data to or from the buffer.

False

True or False:
Graphic images are generally stored as a MIDI map, where each pixel is represented by one or more numbers.

True

True or False:
Amplitude modulation (or amplitude shift keying) encodes the data by varying the magnitude of wave peaks within an analog signal.

False

True or False:
A pixel is a primitive component of human speech.

True

True or False:
A track is a series of sectors stored along one concentric circle on a disk platter.

True

True or False:
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) is a standardized method of encoding notes and instruments for communication with synthesizers and sound cards.

True

True or False:
Electromagnetic interference cannot interfere with signals sent through fiber optic cable.

True

True or False:
Crosstalk is noise added to the signal in the wire from EMI generated by adjacent wires.

False

True or False:
Video displays generate color using separate (but closely spaced) red, yellow, and blue pixels.

False

True or False:
Part of the function of a secondary storage device controller is to translate physical accesses into logical accesses.

False

True or False:
The data transfer rate of a disk storage device can be calculated as the product of its rotational speed and sector size.

False

True or False:
Simplex transmission implements two-way transmission with only one communication channel.

True

True or False:
Wireless transmission frequencies are regulated heavily, and regulations vary in different parts of the world.

True

True or False:
Cost per bit stored decreases as capacity of a storage device or medium increases.

False

True or False:
A cache controller is a hardware device that initiates a cache swap when it detects a cache hit.

False

True or False:
Coaxial cable has the lower bandwidth than twisted pair cable.

True

True or False:
A cache is a small area of fast memory that can be used to minimize wait states.

Stack Pointer

The ______ is automatically incremented or decremented each time the stack is pushed or popped.

A. Device Controller
B. Stack Pointer
C. Cache
D. Buffer

Parallel

The access method of RAM is ______ if bits are considered the unit of data access.

A. Random
B. Parallel
C. Serial
D. Direct

Stack Pointer

The ______ is a register that always contains the address of the topmost stack element.

A. Interrupt Register
B. Stack Pointer
C. Machine State
D. Instruction Register

4 nanoseconds

If the bus clock rate is 250 MHz, what is the duration of each bus cycle?

A. 2 nanoseconds
B. 3 nanoseconds
C. 4 nanoseconds
D. 5 nanoseconds

Serial

What transmission method sends bits one at a time using a single transmission line?

A. Serial
B. Parallel
C. RF
D. Infrared

Push

During a(n) _____ operation, one or more register values are copied to the top of the stack.

A. Pop
B. Push
C. Swap
D. Shift

Interrupt

A(n) ____ is a signal to the CPU or operating system that some device or program requires processing services.

A. Pop
B. Interrupt
C. Push
D. Cache swap

Type I error

What term describes the probability that an error detection method will not detect a transmission error?

A. Type I error
B. Type II error
C. Compensating error
D. Skew

SIMMs/DIMMs

Many personal computers use memory packaged on small standardized circuit boards called _____.

A. DIPs
B. SIMMs/DIMMs
C. DRAMs
D. SRAMs

Hertz

The number of refresh cycles per second is normally stated in ______.

A. Hertz
B. Bytes
C. Pixels
D. DPI

Cache (but not buffer) content is intelligently managed

The difference between a cache and a buffer is ______.

A. Data is removed from a cache as it is read.
B. Buffers are only used for storage device accesses.
C. Cache (but not buffer) content is intelligently managed.
D. Buffers are usually much larger than caches

Amplitude

What modulation type encodes data by varying the magnitude of wave peaks within a carrier wave?

A. Phase
B. Packet
C. Frequency
D. Amplitude

Asynchronous

What transmission type uses start bits?

A. Synchronous
B. Broadband
C. Asynchronous
D. Baseband

Cycle

A complete _____ of a sine wave follows its full range from zero to positive peak, back to zero, to its negative peak, and then back to zero again.

A. Amplitude
B. Phase
C. Frequency
D. Cycle

Flash RAM

Operating software is stored in _____ or downloaded from a server when the thin client is powered up.

A. Cache
B. Buffers
C. Flash RAM
D. ROM

Cache

A(n) _____ is a small area of fast memory that can be used to minimize wait states when reading from a primary or secondary storage device.

A. Stack
B. I/O Port
C. Buffer
D. Cache

Twisted Pair

Which cable type has the lowest bandwidth?

A. Coaxial
B. Fiber Optic
C. Synchronous
D. Twisted Pair

Size

Which of the following is not one of the characteristics that distinguishes storage devices?

A. Speed
B. Size
C. Volatility
D. Portability

Dynamic

What type of RAM requires frequent refresh cycles to maintain its data content?

A. Dynamic
B. Static
C. Synchronous
D. Enhanced

AVC

Which of the following is not included in sound cards?

A. ADC
B. DAC
C. Low power amplifier
D. AVC

Opening a non-existent file

Which of the following is a potential source of an interrupt?

A. Dropped modem connection
B. Opening a non-existent file
C. Successful computation operation
D. Opening a file that exists

Firmware

Software programs permanently stored in a read only memory (ROM) are called ______.

A. Software
B. Firmware
C. Hardware
D. Vaporware

CD-ROM

An optical storage medium that is written only during manufacture is called a(n) _____.

A. Phase change disk
B. Magneto optical disk
C. CD-ROM
D. WORM disk

JPEG

The _____ format is a commonly used method of compressed storage for graphic images.

A. JPEG
B. MPEG
C. CMYK
D. MIDI

Serial

Tape drives are ______ access devices.

A. Direct
B. Serial
C. Random
D. Average

Head-to-head switching time

____ is the least significant component of access time.

A. Head-to-head switching time
B. Data transfer rate
C. Absolute addressing
D. Magnetic decay

On the stack

During interrupt processing, register values of a suspended process are stored _______.

A. On the stack
B. In a cache
C. In a buffer
D. In a linear address space

Bus arbitration unit

A(n) ____ is a hardware device that intervenes when two potential bus masters want control of the bus at the same time.

A. System bus
B. Cache controller
C. Bus arbitration unit
D. Peripheral processing unit

Calls system software programs and processes

Which of the following functions is not performed by device controllers?

A. Implement the bus interface and access protocols.
B. Translate logical accesses into physical accesses.
C. Calls system software programs and processes.
D. Permit several devices to share access to a bus connection.

SCSI-720

Which of the following is not one of the SCSI standards?

A. SCSI-1
B. Ultra SCSI
C. Ultra3 SCSI
D. SCSI-720

Optical media are subject to magnetic decay and leakage

Which of the following statements about optical storage media is not true?

A. Most optical storage media can retain data for decades.
B. Optical media are subject to magnetic decay and leakage.
C. Typical optical recording densities are at least 10 time greater than for magnetic storage devices.
D. Optical storage devices store bit values as variations in light reflection.

DVD-RAM discs can be read in current DVD-ROM and home DVD players.

Which of the following statements about DVDs is not true?

A. DVD-RAM capacity is approximately 4.7 GB for single-sided discs.
B. DVD-RAM capacity is approximately 8.5 GB for double-sided discs.
C. DVD-R capacity is 4.7 MB.
D. DVD-RAM discs can be read in current DVD-ROM and home DVD players.

Rotational delay

Which of the following is not a problem associated with magnetic tape storage?

A. Magnetic leakage
B. Magnetic decay
C. Friction
D. Rotational delay

Drive array

A(n) ____ supports parallell access by storing fragments of a single data item on different storage devices.

A. Phase change optical disk
B. Magneto-optical disk drive
C. Drive array
D. Device controller

System bus

The ______ is the communication channel that connects all computer system components.

A. System bus
B. Cache controller
C. Bus arbitration unit
D. Peripheral processing unit

Message

A(n) _______ is a unit of data or information transmitted from a sender to one or more recipients.

A. Message
B. Cycle
C. Digital signal
D. Baseband

Data transfer rate

What measurement unit describes the speed and capacity of a communication channel?

A. Throughput
B. Access Time
C. Response Time
D. Data transfer rate

Device controller

Where does the translation from logical access to physical accesses normally take place?

A. Bus
B. Device controller
C. I/O or storage device
D. Bus arbitration unit

Square

_______ waves are the preferred method of digital data transmission over relatively short distances, for example, on a computer system bus.

A. Sine
B. Square
C. Digital
D. Cosine

Points

The units of measurement for font size are called _____.

A. Pixels
B. Points
C. Bits
D. All of the above

Absolute

Under _______ addressing, program memory references correspond to physical memory locations.

A. Direct
B. Serial
C. Random
D. Absolute

Blue

Which of the following is not considered a subtractive color?

A. Cyan
B. Blue
C. Yellow
D. Magenta

Addressable

The number of bits used to represent a memory address determine the amount of a CPU's _______ memory.

A. Addressable
B. Physical
C. Segmented
D. Flat

Multilevel coding

_____ is a technique for embedding multiple bit values within a single wave characteristic, such as a frequency or amplitude.

A. Circuit switching
B. Asynchronous transmission
C. Multilevel coding
D. Frequency modulation

Cache hit

When a read operating accesses data already contained within the cache, the access is called a(n) _____.

A. Cache hit
B. Cache miss
C. Cache swap
D. Cache bypass

Crosstalk

What term corresponds to the following definition: noise added to the signal in the wire from EMI generated by adjacent wires?

A. Skew
B. Crosstalk
C. both A and B
D. neither A nor B

Fiber optic

What type of transmission cable is immune to electromagnetic interference?

A. Twisted pair
B. Category 5
C. Coaxial
D. Fiber optic

Communication protocol

A(n) ______ is a set of rule and conventions for communication.

A. Message
B. Communication Protocol
C. Phase
D. Frequency

Frequency

What modulation type represents bit values by varying carrier wave frequency while holding amplitude constant?

A. Amplitude
B. Phase shift
C. Frequency
D. Shift keying

Linear address space

The operating system normally views any storage device as a(n) _____, thus ignoring the device's physical storage organization.

A. Device controller
B. Peripheral processing unit
C. Linear address space
D. Multiple master bus

Amplifier

A(n) ______ can extend the range of an electrical signal by boosting signal power to overcome attenuation.

A. Repeater
B. Return wire
C. Amplifier
D. Signal wire

Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow

The printing industry generally uses inks based on the subtractive colors, which are _______.

A. Red, Green and Magenta
B. Red, Yellow and Cyan
C. Cyan, Magenta and Yellow
D. Cyan, Magenta and Blue

Attenuation

Fiber optic cable segments can be longer than copper cable segments because optical signals experiences less ______.

A. Attenuation
B. Compensating errors
C. Multipath distortion
D. S/N ratio

I/O ports

______ enable the CPU and bus to interact with a keyboard in exactly the same way they interact with a disk drive or video display.

A. Caches
B. I/O ports
C. Buffers
D. DMA controllers

Cache miss

A cache controller is a hardware device that initiates a cache swap when it detects a(n) _____.

A. Cache miss
B. Cache hit
C. Interrupt
D. Stack overflow

Plasma

A(n) ____ display is similar in construction to other flat panel displays except that it employs gaseous elements for light generation.

A. Cathode ray
B. Plasma
C. Liquid crystal
D. Video display terminal

MPEG

The ______ format is a commonly used method of compressed storage for motion video.

A. JPEG
B. MPEG
C. CMYK
D. MIDI

Device controller

Which of the following provides the interface between the storage device and the system bus?

A. RAM
B. ROM
C. Read/Write mechanism
D. Device controller

2:1

If a compression method typically reduces a 100 MByte file to 50 MBytes, then the compression ratio is ______.

A. 150:1
B. 1:150
C. 2:1
D. 1:2

Data transfer rates differ

A buffer is not required when _________.

A. Input and output data unit sizes are not equal
B. Input data must wait until the device controller can gain access to the bus
C. Output data must wait until the device controller can gain access to the bus
D. Data transfer rates differ

Red, Green and Blue

The primary colors for video display are ____.

A. Red, Green and Blue
B. Red, Yellow and Blue
C. Red, Yellow and Green
D. Red, Yellow and Cyan

Analog

What type of signal can carry one of an infinite number of messages during one unit of time?

A. Analog
B. Binary
C. Digital
D. Discrete

1.44

Storing an 800x600 24-bit color image requires how many MB of storage?

A. 1.44
B. 14
C. 14.4
D. 144

Half-duplex

What transmission type uses a line turnaround character?

A. Simplex
B. Half-duplex
C. Full-duplex
D. Synchronous

Milliseconds

Access time is typically state in ______ for secondary storage devices and nanoseconds for primary storage devices.

A. Microseconds
B. Nanoseconds
C. Milliseconds
D. Picoseconds

Frequency

What characteristic of an analog signal is measured in Hertz, or cycles per second?

A. Amplitude
B. Frequency
C. Phase
D. Skew

Raw data transfer rate

A(n) _____ is the maximum number of bits or bytes per second that the channel can carry.

A. Effective data transfer rate
B. Raw data transfer rate
C. Binary signal
D. Even parity

Access times for secondary storage devices are typically expressed in nanoseconds.

Which of the following statement about secondary storage is not correct?

A. By itself, access time is an incomplete measure of data access speed
B. The data transfer unit for primary storage devices in usually a word
C. Block size is normally stated in bytes
D. Access times for secondary storage devices are typically expressed in nanoseconds

Closest to the platter edge

To increase storage capacity, most magnetic disk drive manufacturers divide the platter surface into zones and increase the number of sectors per track in the zone _______.

A. Closest to the platter center
B. Closest to the platter edge
C. Equally distant between the center and edge of the platter
D. Closest to the sector edge

Protocol

The bus ____ governs the format, content, and timing of data, memory addresses, and control messages sent across the bus.

A. Master
B. Slave
C. Arbitration unit
D. Protocol

Bitmap

In an image description language, image components that are too complex to represent using vectors and curves are represented using an embedded _____.

A. Display list
B. Bitmap
C. Phoneme list
D. MIDI file

Analog

Which of the following signal types is most susceptible to transmission error?

A. Analog
B. Binary
C. Digital
D. Discrete

Access time for a random access storage device must be a constant

Which of the following statements is not correct?

A. Data is written to a linear storage medium in a specific order and can be read back only in that same order.
B. All primary storage devices and disk storage devices are random access devices
C. Access time for a random access storage device must be a constant
D. Parallel access can also be achieved by subdividing data items and storing the component pieces on multiple storage devices.

MPEG-3

Which of the following is not one of the standards of the Motion Picture Experts Group?

A. MPEG-1
B. MPEG-2
C. MPEG-3
D. MPEG-4

Both A and B

To which bus(es) is a SCSI controller attached?

A. SCSI bus
B. System bus
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B

Baseband

What transmission type uses all of a transmission medium's capacity to implement a single channel?

A. Broadband
B. Baseband
C. Asynchronous
D. Synchronous

Cathode ray tube

The display device used in older computer monitors (and inexpensive televisions) is a(n) ____.

A. Plasma display
B. Cathode ray tube
C. Liquid crystal display
D. Active matrix

All of the above

Which of the following devices does the CPU treat as a linear address space?

A. Tape drive
B. Disk drive
C. Video display
D. All of the above

Reduced storage space

The main advantage(s) of MIDI as compared to digital representations of sound is/are __.

A. Reduced storage space
B. More accurate sound reproduction
C. identical sound quality from any sound card
D. Control over the exact nature of the generated sound.

Repeater

What device extends the range of data transmission by retransmitting a signal?

A. Repeater
B. Amplifier
C. Line conditioner
D. Demultiplexer

Bus

Which of the following is a set of parallel communication lines that connect two or more devices?

A. Bus
B. Cache
C. Buffer
D. I/O port

Broadband

What transmission type divides the capacity of a transmission medium to implement multiple channels?

A. Asynchronous
B. Synchronous
C. Broadband
D. Baseband

Scan code

A keyboard controller generates output called a(n) ____ when one or more keys are pressed.

A. Control code
B. Escape code
C. Control character
D. Scan code

Bitmap

Image storage requirements can be reduced with _____ compression techniques.

A. Bitmap
B. Additive file
C. MIDI file
D. Subtractive file

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