What is Logarithm?
AKA Log. The logarithm of a number is the number of times that the number 10 is multiplied by itself to create the original number
*Ex: Log of 100 is 2 (10 x 10)
*Ex: Log of 1000 is 3 (10 x 10 x 10)
*As the logarithm increases by 1, the actual number increases 10 fold
What does the Richter Scale measure?
The strength of earthquakes
What is the difference between a magnitude 5 and a magnitude 7 earthquake, in both real terms and logarithmic terms?
2 in real terms and 100 in logarithmic terms.
What is a decibel?
The method of quantifying or measuring the strength of electrical signal and the brightness of echoes.
What type of change does decibel measure?
What are the two types of intensities related to decibel?
Initial Intensity - Intensity at the starting level
New Intensity - Intensity during measurement
What is the 3 Decibel Rule?
For every 3 dB, intensity doubles
What is the ratio for Decibel?
(New) Actual Intensity Level / (Initial) Starting Intensity Level
*Ratio is equivalent to 3 dB
What is a positive decibel?
A. It is a measurement of increasing strength
B. When a wave's intensity doubles, the relative change is +3 dB
C. When the intensity increases 10-fold, the relative change is +10 dB
What is a negative decibel?
A. The measurement of decreasing strength
B. When a wave's intensity is reduced by 1/2 its original value, the relative change is -3 dB
C. When the intensity is reduced to 1/10 its original value, the relative change is -10 dB
What is attenuation?
The weakening of a wave
Attenuation is the reduction of what three factors as sound travels?
What two factors determine attenuation?
1. Path Length - Depth to travel or imaging depth
2. Frequency of Sound
Attenuation is directly proportional to what two factors?
1. Depth the Sound Travels
2. Frequency of Sound Wave
How is attenuation reported?
In terms of decibels as a relative change, NOT as an absolute change
What three factors contribute to attenuation?
*Attenuation is the process whereby sound energy is extracted from a wave by reflection, scattering and absorption
What is reflection?
The redirection of some of the sound energy back to where the source of the sound came from
When does reflection occur?
When the dimension of the boundary is large
What are the two types of reflections?
1. Specular & Non-Specular
What is specular reflection? (B-Mode)
A reflection that occurs on a (straight) smooth boundary in a single direction in an organized manner and back to the transducer
What is an advantage to specular reflection?
The reflections are strong
What is a disadvantage to specular reflection?
The reflections do not go back to the transducer if the wave doesn't hit at 90 degree angle
What are four descriptors of specular reflections?
4. Occurs from a smooth boundary
What are four descriptions of non-specular reflections?
4. Occurs from a rough boundary
What is diffuse Reflection aka Backscatter?
A reflection that occurs on an irregular boundary in different directions
What is an advantage of Diffuse Reflection?
Reflections may return to the transducer even if the waves are off-axis
What is a disadvantage of Diffuse Reflection?
Reflections are weaker than specular
What is scattering?
Random redirection of sound in many directions
When does scattering occur?
When the boundary (interface) is small or is equal or smaller than the wavelength
What is scattering directly related to?
What is Rayleigh Scattering (Organized Scattering)?
It occurs when the structure's size is much smaller than the wavelength and the sounds are redirected equally in all directions in an organized manner
Ex: Rayleigh scattering from red blood cells
*Rayleigh scattering is directly related to frequency raised to the 4th power
What is Absorption?
The conversion of ultrasound energy into heat energy
What is the main reason why high frequency waves attenuate more than lower frequency sound waves?
In diagnostic imaging, what type of frequency is used to provide images from the depth of clinical interest?
The highest frequencies
What is the attenuation coefficient?
The number of decibels of attenuation that occurs for every centimeter that a wave travels.
What is the unit used for the attenuation coefficient?
High or Low - The attenuation in bone and lungs?
High or Low - The attenuation in water?
When is attenuation higher in muscle?
When travelling across the muscle fibers, versus along the length of the fiber.
Is attenuation higher in muscle or soft tissues?
Attention Coefficient multiplied by the Distance Traveled is equal to?
The Total Attenuation
What is the Attenuation Coefficient in Soft Tissue?
It is equal to half of the frequency in MHz
What is the relationship between frequency and attenuation?
As frequency increases, scattering and absorption increases
How are frequency and attenuation related to each other?
They are directly proportional
What is Half-Value Layer Thickness?
The depth of distance that a sound travels that reduces the intensity of sound to one-half of its original value
AKA - Penetration depth, depth of penetration and half-boundary layer
What is the unit of measurement for Half-Value Layer Thickness?
What is the typical value range of Half-Value Layer Thickness?
0.25 to 1.0 cm
What is Impedance?
The acoustic resistance to sound traveling in a medium
What is the formula for Impedance?
Density (medium) x c (Kg/cubic meter) x m/s
What is the unit of measurement for Impedance?
What is the typical value range of impedance?
1,250,000 Z to 1,750,000 Z [Range of Impedance in Soft Tissues]
How is impedance determined?
By the medium ONLY
What is the relationship between reflection and impedance?
They are directly related. As impedance increases, reflection increases.
What is Incidence?
The striking of a sound wave at an interface as it propagates through soft tissues
What are the three types of angles?
Acute - Less than 90 degrees
Right - Exactly 90 degrees
Obtuse - Greater than 90 degrees
What is Normal Incidence?
A type of incidence when the incident sound beam strikes the boundary at exactly 90 degrees
AKA - Perpendicular, orthogonal, right angle and 90 degrees
What is Oblique Incidence
A type of incidence when the incident sound beam strikes the boundary at any angle other than 90 degrees
AKA - Non-perpendicular
What is Incident Intensity?
It's the intensity of the sound wave before it strikes a boundary
AKA - Starting intensity
Incident Intensity = Reflected Intensity + Transmitted Intensity
What is Reflected Intensity?
The intensity of the portion of a sound beam that returns back after striking a boundary
What is Transmitted Intensity?
The intensity of the portion of the incident beam that continues forward in the same direction that it is traveling after striking a boundary
What is the Intensity Reflection Coefficient?
The percentage of the intensity that returns back when the sound beam travels from one medium to another
1% or less in clinical imaging of soft tissues Abbreviated as IRC
What is the formula for Intensity Reflection Coefficient (IRC)?
(Z2-Z1/Z2+Z1)^2 x 100
What is the Intensity Transmission Coefficient?
The percentage of the intensity that travels forward in the same direction that it is traveling after striking an interface
*99% or more in clinical imaging of soft tissues
How are intensities reported?
How are coefficients reported?
Percentages and therefore without units
100% = IRC(%) + ITC(%)
When does reflection occur in a normal incidence?
Reflection occurs when the impedance of the media on either side of the interface are different
Relationships between Reflection and Impedance - The greater the impedance difference between media...
The greater the reflection at the boundary
Relationships between Reflection and Impedance - The smaller the impedance difference between media...
The smaller the amount of reflection
Relationships between Reflection and Impedance - If the impedance between media on either side of the interface are the same
There is no reflection
What is an Oblique Incidence?
An incidence that occurs when the sound beam strikes the boundary between different media at an angle other than 90 degrees
AKA - Non-Perpendicular Incidence, Acute Incidence, Obtuse Incidence
*The incidence angle is greater than 0
*The reflected sound may not return back to the source
*The transmitted sound may travel in a direction different from the incident sound or it may travel in the same direction
When does reflection occur in an oblique incidence?
We cannot predict reflection and transmission because of the complicated physics that is involved
Law of Conservation of Energy (Sound)
Percent of Reflected Sound + Percent of Transmitted Sound = 100%
Law of Conservation of Energy (Intensity)
Incident Intensity = Reflected Intensity + Transmitted Intensity
Reflection Angle = Incident Angle
The reflection that occurs with oblique incidence does not return back to the transducer, but is reflected in a different direction
Angle of Reflection = Angle of Incidence
Angle of Incidence: The angle between the incident sound beam and an imaginary online that is perpendicular to the boundary
Angle of Reflection: The angle between the reflected sound beam and an imaginary line that is perpendicular to the boundary
What are the three factors associated to transmission with oblique incidence?
1. Cannot be predicted
2. It might travel in the same direction
3. It might change direction
What is the definition of refraction?
A sound beam that is transmitted in a direction different from the direction that the incident sound beam is traveling
Ahem... What is refraction again?
A form of transmission in a different direction
What are the two requirements for refraction?
1. Oblique Incidence
2. Propagation speeds in the media on either side of the boundary are different
Will refraction occur in an oblique incidence with the media having the same propagation speeds?
*Remember that although we use a single propagation speed in soft tissues, this parameter changes in the same tissue.
What is Snell's Law?
The law that defines the physics of refraction.
1. If the propagation speeds of sound in both media are the same, there will be no refraction
2. If the propagation speed of sound in the second medium is greater than the first medium, the transmission angle is greater than the incident angle