The scientific study of thinking
What are the categories of cognitive psychology?
Memory, learning, perception, decision making, attention, and imagery
Interdisciplinary field that studies the mind
What are some of the subfields of cognitive science?
Computer science, cognitive psychology, parts of philosophy, linguistics, neuroscience, and parts of anthropology
What are the three components that interconnect with one another?
Thinking, the brain, and computers
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
What was the problem with early psychologists?
They didn't know what was going on in someone else's head, the idea of introspection
What did psychology develop out of?
Philosophy and physiology
Rene Descartes dates were?
Descartes was considered one of the best what during his time?
He was a great mathematician
Descartes created what for math?
The cartisian coordinates
What was the first influence Descartes had?
He treated humans as thinking entities. If it is human than it's conscious, if it's conscious than it's human
"I think therefore I am"
What was the second influence Descartes had?
The body is a machine. The body is very complex, and if treated like a machine it will make progress
Mechanical figures built to imitate human and animal behavior
What's the modern influence of the automata?
What's the software of the machine (Body) in modern cognitive psychology?
The mind is considered the software of the machine
Artificial intelligence (AI)
a subdiscipline of computer science that attempts to simulate human thinking
What's the problem with (AI)?
They always promise too much (seeing, hearing, thinking)
bypasses normal paths to brain and goes to the spinal cord where a decision is immediately made and a signal goes to the motor neuron to cause a quick reaction
Early on what did they think reflex action was?
Animal spirits than ran through youre nerves
What was the third influence of Descartes?
The body and mind both exist and they interact.
The mind and body are two entities that interact with one another
The mind affecting the body is a type of
(philosophy) the philosophical theory that matter is the only reality. Only body is real
What's the main thing to question materialism?
Dreams, we create a world that is completely made up and false but seems real
What was the fourth influence of Descartes?
Derived and innate ideas.
products of experiences of the senses
ideas that we do not get from sense experience, but rather that we are born with
What was the reaction against derived and innate ideas?
Empiricism, and nativism
(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge derives from experience (Derived ideas)
(philosophy) the philosophical theory that some ideas are innate and not derived from the senses. It's capacities are determined too
What was the conclusion from the talkative article?
There wasn't significant data to support the null hypothesis that women talk more than men
The first author in a research paper
Where does the authors name who's lab the experiment took place in appear
Usually the last in the list of authors
Refers to masculine or feminine
Refers to female or male
Because the standard deviation is so large for this experiment it means?
That the experiment isn't very precise
What percent of the day were people recorded for?
Only 4% of the day
What was Descartes fifth influence?
Animals just have bodies thye dont have a mind, so they are just machines
What was the implication of animals just being machines?
You couldn't study them to study mental processes to relate them to humans
Who changed this way of thinking?
William Woundt combined what to found what?
Combined philosophy and physiology to found modern psychology
William Woundt is considered to be?
The founder of psychology
What did Woundt study?
He studied consciousness. Mostly immediate conscious experiences.
Why was psychology broadened by American functionalism?
Because of social Darwinism (Hierarchy), and also how to make money on psychology
Who wrote principles of psychology
Principles of Psychology was considered?
The first modern psychology book and was very influential
Principles of Psychology was the beginning of what?
William James dates were from?
What year was The Principles of Psychology written?
What did James tie together?
The brain to thinking and behavior
According to James a persons consciousness will lead to what?
It guides a person to adapt and survive (Darwinism)
How was James idea of consciousness different than Woundtian?
Woundt is very narrow, James is interested in the flow of consciousness
What does stream of consciousness refer to?
Continuous flow of thoughts and perceptions that make up consciousness
Why is it difficult to study
Paying attention to your thinking you have changed your thinking
James habit about all living creatures is?
Almost everything we do are bundles of habit
What were the three modern topics James antipicitated?
Flashbulb memory, tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon, and neural networks
What's the difference between behavior and the mind?
You can study behavior scientifically but you can't study the mind
In order foso behavior to be a subject of science it must be?
It must be publicly observable
What is the first problem with introspection?
Paying attention to thinking may change thinking
What is the second problem with introspection?
Introspection relies on memory, and memory can be faulty
What is the third problem with introspection?
You may not know what is going on in your own mind
What is the fourth problem with introspection?
You can't use with infants, animals, and some people with mental problems
What is the fifth problem with introspection?
Different results with different researchers
What is the sixth problem with introspection?
Sometimes you could not replicate results with same subjects
Why would replication be important?
If you can't replicate than it's not reliable
What was the seventh problem with introspection?
Whom does the results generalize?
Get inconsistent results because they don't know the purpose of the test.
Are they experiencing this or is it a trained responds
What were some of the difficult topics to study using behaviorism?
Attention, consciousness, and imagery
What were psychologists jobs during WWII?
Find out why well- trained soldiers were making mistakes with instruments
What did the psychologists during WWII have to study?
They studied the behaviors of the soldiers
What was the lasting legacy of behaviorism?
Care in jumping from behavior to unobservable
Sir Francis Galton did work on what for the development of cognitive psychology?
He worked on mental imagery and thinking. Fingerprinting, composite photpgraphy, and word association tests.
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior
How did Alfred Binet influence the development of cognitive psychology?
He developed intelligence test, which showed that thinking can be measured
Fredric Bartlett did work on what?
Worked on memory using the native American stories and would ask people to tell them back to him after a certain amount of time
Bartlett used the term schemas to describe what?
What was the result of Bartlett's memory testing?
He could test high levels of changes in memory
Piaget's main contribution to cognitive psychology was?
His theory of cognitive development. You can develop a theory of mind
George Miller information theory was?
"The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information" 1956
Noam Chomsky critiqued what?
Skinner's Verbal Behavior
What did Chomsky notice about Skinners verbal Behavior?
Children's mistakes, recognize proper sentences, and developed native theory of language