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Cognitive Psychology

The scientific study of thinking

What are the categories of cognitive psychology?

Memory, learning, perception, decision making, attention, and imagery

Cognitive science

Interdisciplinary field that studies the mind

What are some of the subfields of cognitive science?

Computer science, cognitive psychology, parts of philosophy, linguistics, neuroscience, and parts of anthropology

What are the three components that interconnect with one another?

Thinking, the brain, and computers

Introspection

a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings

What was the problem with early psychologists?

They didn't know what was going on in someone else's head, the idea of introspection

What did psychology develop out of?

Philosophy and physiology

Rene Descartes dates were?

1596-1650

Descartes was considered one of the best what during his time?

He was a great mathematician

Descartes created what for math?

The cartisian coordinates

What was the first influence Descartes had?

He treated humans as thinking entities. If it is human than it's conscious, if it's conscious than it's human

Descartes said:

"I think therefore I am"

What was the second influence Descartes had?

The body is a machine. The body is very complex, and if treated like a machine it will make progress

Automata

Mechanical figures built to imitate human and animal behavior

What's the modern influence of the automata?

A robot

What's the software of the machine (Body) in modern cognitive psychology?

The mind is considered the software of the machine

Artificial intelligence (AI)

a subdiscipline of computer science that attempts to simulate human thinking

What's the problem with (AI)?

They always promise too much (seeing, hearing, thinking)

Reflex action

bypasses normal paths to brain and goes to the spinal cord where a decision is immediately made and a signal goes to the motor neuron to cause a quick reaction

Early on what did they think reflex action was?

Animal spirits than ran through youre nerves

What was the third influence of Descartes?

The body and mind both exist and they interact.

Dualism

The mind and body are two entities that interact with one another

The mind affecting the body is a type of

Cytokinesis

Materialism

(philosophy) the philosophical theory that matter is the only reality. Only body is real

What's the main thing to question materialism?

Dreams, we create a world that is completely made up and false but seems real

What was the fourth influence of Descartes?

Derived and innate ideas.

Derived ideas

products of experiences of the senses

Innate ideas

ideas that we do not get from sense experience, but rather that we are born with

What was the reaction against derived and innate ideas?

Empiricism, and nativism

Empiricism

(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge derives from experience (Derived ideas)

Nativism

(philosophy) the philosophical theory that some ideas are innate and not derived from the senses. It's capacities are determined too

What was the conclusion from the talkative article?

There wasn't significant data to support the null hypothesis that women talk more than men

Principle author

The first author in a research paper

Where does the authors name who's lab the experiment took place in appear

Usually the last in the list of authors

Gender

Refers to masculine or feminine

Sex

Refers to female or male

Because the standard deviation is so large for this experiment it means?

That the experiment isn't very precise

What percent of the day were people recorded for?

Only 4% of the day

What was Descartes fifth influence?

Animals just have bodies thye dont have a mind, so they are just machines

What was the implication of animals just being machines?

You couldn't study them to study mental processes to relate them to humans

Who changed this way of thinking?

Charles Darwin

William Woundt combined what to found what?

Combined philosophy and physiology to found modern psychology

William Woundt is considered to be?

The founder of psychology

What did Woundt study?

He studied consciousness. Mostly immediate conscious experiences.

Why was psychology broadened by American functionalism?

Because of social Darwinism (Hierarchy), and also how to make money on psychology

Who wrote principles of psychology

William James

Principles of Psychology was considered?

The first modern psychology book and was very influential

Principles of Psychology was the beginning of what?

Modern psychology

William James dates were from?

1842-1910

What year was The Principles of Psychology written?

1890

What did James tie together?

The brain to thinking and behavior

According to James a persons consciousness will lead to what?

It guides a person to adapt and survive (Darwinism)

How was James idea of consciousness different than Woundtian?

Woundt is very narrow, James is interested in the flow of consciousness

What does stream of consciousness refer to?

Continuous flow of thoughts and perceptions that make up consciousness

Why is it difficult to study

Paying attention to your thinking you have changed your thinking

James habit about all living creatures is?

Almost everything we do are bundles of habit

What were the three modern topics James antipicitated?

Flashbulb memory, tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon, and neural networks

What's the difference between behavior and the mind?

You can study behavior scientifically but you can't study the mind

In order foso behavior to be a subject of science it must be?

It must be publicly observable

What is the first problem with introspection?

Paying attention to thinking may change thinking

What is the second problem with introspection?

Introspection relies on memory, and memory can be faulty

What is the third problem with introspection?

You may not know what is going on in your own mind

What is the fourth problem with introspection?

You can't use with infants, animals, and some people with mental problems

What is the fifth problem with introspection?

Different results with different researchers

What is the sixth problem with introspection?

Sometimes you could not replicate results with same subjects

Why would replication be important?

If you can't replicate than it's not reliable

What was the seventh problem with introspection?

Whom does the results generalize?

Naive observers

Get inconsistent results because they don't know the purpose of the test.

Trained observer

Are they experiencing this or is it a trained responds

What were some of the difficult topics to study using behaviorism?

Attention, consciousness, and imagery

What were psychologists jobs during WWII?

Find out why well- trained soldiers were making mistakes with instruments

What did the psychologists during WWII have to study?

They studied the behaviors of the soldiers

What was the lasting legacy of behaviorism?

Care in jumping from behavior to unobservable

Sir Francis Galton did work on what for the development of cognitive psychology?

He worked on mental imagery and thinking. Fingerprinting, composite photpgraphy, and word association tests.

Behaviorism

an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior

How did Alfred Binet influence the development of cognitive psychology?

He developed intelligence test, which showed that thinking can be measured

Fredric Bartlett did work on what?

Worked on memory using the native American stories and would ask people to tell them back to him after a certain amount of time

Bartlett used the term schemas to describe what?

Mental representations

What was the result of Bartlett's memory testing?

He could test high levels of changes in memory

Piaget's main contribution to cognitive psychology was?

His theory of cognitive development. You can develop a theory of mind

George Miller information theory was?

"The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information" 1956

Noam Chomsky critiqued what?

Skinner's Verbal Behavior

What did Chomsky notice about Skinners verbal Behavior?

Children's mistakes, recognize proper sentences, and developed native theory of language

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