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Joints of the Skeletal System & Muscular System

epimysium

The outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle is the

actin and myosin

Myofibrils are composed primarily of

sarcomere organization

The striated appearance of skeletal muscle results from the

transmit muscle impulses into the cell interior

Transverse tubules

cordlike and connects muscles to bones; a broad, fibrous sheet of connective tissue that connects muscles to muscles

A tendon is _________, whereas an aponeurosis is ___________.

sarcomere

The functional unit of muscle contraction is the

motor neuron endings

Neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles in

oxygen debt

The amount of oxygen liver cells require to react lactic acid to produce glucose or the glycogen glycogen is the ________.

decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium

Rigor mortis affects skeletal muscles a few hours after death, due to _________.

synapse

The functional connection between a neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber is a

4, 1, 3, 6, 2, 5
4. The impulse arrives at the synapse and travels through the transverse tubules.
1. The muscle impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum and calcium is released.
3. Calcium floods the sarcoplasm and binds to troponin molecules leaving active sites.
6. Tropomyosin molecules bind to exposed active sites, linking actin and myosin
2. Thin filaments are pulled over the thick filaments.
5. The muscle fiber shortens and contracts.

Arrange the following steps for contraction in the correct sequence.

creatine phosphate supplies energy to regenerate ATP from ADP and phosphate

The relationship between ATP and creatine phosphate is that

a motor neuron and the muscle fibers connected to it

A motor unit is.

the more active they are, the more heat is released.

Skeletal muscles help maintain body temperature in that

minimal amount of energy required to contract a muscle fiber.

Threshold stimulus is the

a recording of the events of a twitch.

A myogram is

muscle tone

An example of a partial but sustained contraction is .

isometric.

A plank position is part of a yoga/Pilates workout. The person supports the body on the floor in a prone position with the arms and feet supporting the body. It is a little like the "up" position of a push-up, held for 30 to 60 seconds. Contraction of the abdominal muscles in a plank is most likely

refractory period.

The very brief moment following stimulation when a muscle remains unresponsive to additional stimulation is called the

transverse tubules and striations.

Smooth muscle lacks

calmodulin

Smooth muscle has ________ and not troponin.

contracts more slowly and relaxes more slowly.

Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle

smooth muscle contraction.

Both acetylcholine and norepinephrine can affect

intercalated discs.

The structures that connect cardiac muscle cells are

all of the above.

Cardiac muscle

insertion.

The movable end of a muscle is its

prime mover.

The muscle primarily responsible for an action is the

synergist

A muscle that assists a prime mover is a(n) .

a band of tough connective tissue to which abdominal wall muscles attach.

The linea alba is

Mandibular

Which of the following is not a muscle of mastication?

trapezius and latissimus dorsi.

The triangle of auscultation, commonly used to hear sounds of respiratory organs, is located near the border of the

gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.

A gluteal gait, in which a person walks with a waddling limp, is usually caused by a disorder of the

about two-thirds of the normal number of acetylcholine receptors

People with myasthenia gravis lack

an autoimmune disorder.

Myasthenia gravis is

muscle fibers developing new filaments of actin and myosin.

Weightlifting, in which a muscle exerts more than 75% of its maximum tension, stimulates

all of the above.

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome causes

True

Endomysium separates individual muscle fibers.

True

Layers of dense connective tissue that separate skeletal muscles from each other are called fascia.

True

A motor neuron and the muscle fibers that it controls constitute a motor unit.

False

If a muscle contracts and its fibers shorten, the contraction is isometric.

False

White muscles have an increased capacity to carry on aerobic respiration.

False

Cardiac muscle is voluntary.

True

Muscles and bones function as levers.

True

The masseter muscle functions in mastication.

aponeuroses.

A broad, fibrous sheet of connective tissue that attaches the coverings of adjacent muscles is called an

myoglobin

The pigment responsible for the reddish brown color of skeletal muscle is

acetylcholine

In order to stimulate skeletal muscle fibers, motor neurons release the neurotransmitter

tetanic contraction

A forceful, sustained muscle contraction is called a

lactic acid

Muscle fatigue is most likely due to an accumulation of

summation

The combining of a series of twitches to produce a sustained contraction is called

peristalsis

The rhythmic, wavelike motion produced by smooth muscles in tubular visceral organs is called

1st

A see-saw is an example of a _____ class lever.

Biceps femoris

flexes knee, rotates leg laterally and extends thigh

Gluteus maximus

extends hip

Gracilis

adducts thigh, flexes knee

biceps brachii

flexes elbow and rotates hand laterally

latissimus dorsi

extends, adducts and rotates arm medially or pulls houlder down and back

Deltoid

abducts, extends and flexes arm

splenus capitus

rotates head, bend head to one side, extends neck

epicranius

raises eyebrows

zygomaticus major

raises corner of mouth

masseter

elevates mandible

Slow twitch (type I fibers) are resistant to fatigue.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

2nd

The resistance is located between the fulcrum and the force in a ______ class lever.

I bands are composed of actin

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

latent period

In a recording of a muscle twitch, the delay between the time a stimulus is applied and the time the muscle responds is called the

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