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Affirmative action is defined as

positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities.

Traditional authority refers to

legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice

Which of the following terms refers to the social institution through which goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed

economic system

The social institution that relies on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving the goals of a group is called a (an)

political system

The theory that people become more aware of the political world as they age and hence are more likely to vote is called the

life cycle hypothesis

Which sociologist suggested that the growth of the electronic media has facilitated the development of charismatic authority

Carl Couch

A monopoly is

the control of a market by a single business firm

Which term was used by Max Weber to refer to the ability to exercise one's will over others

power

The exercise of power through a process of persuasion is known as

influence

Socialism is defined as

an economic system under which the means of production and distribution are collectively owned

Reductions taken in a company's workforce as part of deindustrialization are called

downsizing

Max Weber defined force as

the actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one's will on others

A society such as France or Italy that has an economy based on the production of goods in factories through mechanization would be an example of a (an) _______________ society

industrial

Which of the following is predictable in the aftermath of a terrorist attack

Terrorists admit responsibility for the attack

As described by C. Wright Mills, the power elite is

a small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who control the fate of the United States and the group that stands at the top of the power structure in the United States

Which group has a particularly low voter turnout

A) members of racial and ethnic minorities
B) the poor
C) young adults
D) all of these answers are correct!********

Totalitarianism is a form of

dictatorship

Adam Smith is associated with

laissez-faire capitalism.

Which two theorists were responsible for the development of socialism

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

What percentage of eligible voters in the United States voted in the 2004 presidential election?

64 percent

Among the following nations, which had the lowest percentage of persons who had completed higher education, as of 2002

Austria

A sect is a

relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it views as the original vision of the faith

The "correspondence principle" refers to the tendency of

schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and to prepare students for the types of jobs typically held by members of their class

General practices found in every culture, such as dancing, food preparation, interaction with family, and religion, are known as

cultural universals

Federal Title IX policies require schools to

A) all of these answers are correct!*********
B) end sex discrimination in admissions and financial aid.
C) eliminate sex-segregated classes.
D) give girls more opportunities to play sports.

According to ____________, credentialism can increase the status of an occupation and is crucial to employees in their demands for higher pay

C. J. Hurn

Which religion accounts for the majority of India's population

Hinduism

The "hidden curriculum" refers to:

the standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools.

Critics of homeschooling suggest that homeschooled children

are isolated from the larger community and lose an important chance to improve their socializaton skills

What term did Max Weber use to refer to a disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and a rational orientation to life emphasized by John Calvin and his followers

the Protestant ethic

Secularization is the:

process through which religion's influence on other social institutions diminishes

Which of the following is the largest single denomination in the United States

Roman Catholic

An increase in the lowest level of education required to enter a field is called

credentialism

Statements to which members of a particular religion adhere are known as:

religious beliefs

Practices required or expected of members of a faith are known as

religious rituals

The concept of the sacred encompasses

elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, or fear

The feeling or perception of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as a divine being, or of being overcome with religious emotion is called a religious

experience.

What is tracking

the practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteria

Education refers to the process

whereby some people consciously and formally teach while others adopt the social role of learner

A denomination is a:

large, organized religion that is not officially linked with the state or government

The restriction of mate selection to people within the same group is known as

endogamy

Friedrich Engels, a colleague of Karl Marx, noted that:

the family is the ultimate source of social inequality

A kinship system that favors the relatives of the mother is based on:

matrilineal descent

Which state's Supreme Court ruled in a 4-3 decision in 2003 that gay couples have the right to marry

Massachusetts

A married couple and their unmarried children living together constitute a (an)

nuclear family

What is the general term for a marriage in which an individual can have several husbands or wives at the same time

polygamy

Males are expected to dominate family decision making in a (an)

patriarchy

What is the difference between a family and a kin group

The family is a household unit, and kin do not always live together

The requirement that individuals select mates from outside certain groups is known as

exogamy

In which type of society do women hold greater authority than men

a matriarchy

A married couple, their children, and other relatives—such as grandparents, aunts, or uncles—living together in the same household constitute a (an):

extended family.

Under which marital form can a woman have several husbands at the same time?

polyandry

Studies of domestic violence in families suggest that women are more likely to become victims of domestic violence at the hands of:

the men they know.

A form of marriage in which a person can have several spouses in his or her lifetime but only one spouse at a time is called:

serial monogamy

The term incest taboo refers to:

the prohibition of sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives

The process that allows for the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents is referred to as:

adoption

Which of the following does the text define as a family?

a set of people related by blood, marriage (or some other agreed-upon relationship), or adoption who share the responsibility for reproducing and caring for members of society

Monogamy refers to a form of marriage in which:

one woman and one man are married only to each other

The incest taboo is an example of:

exogamy

In which type of authority pattern are the adult members of the family regarded as equals?

egalitarian

Fear of and prejudice against homosexuality is called:

homophobia.

30 percent of U.S. couples share most of the housework while 25 percent in Great Britain do; what percent share the housework in Japanese households?

4 percent

Which of the following would be included in the matrix of domination?

A) All of these are correct!***********
B) race
C) social class
D) gender

In what year did women win the right to vote in national elections

1920

Which of the following play an important part in gender-role socialization in the United States?

A) all of these answers are correct!*********
B) educational institutions
C) religious institutions
D) the mass media

The veil may be seen as a rejection of ___________ prevalent in Western societies

the beauty myth

What percentage of all firefighters are women?

4 percent

Gerontology is:

the scientific study of the sociological and psychological aspects of aging and the problems of the aged

The ideology that one sex is superior to the other is known as:

sexism.

Which Supreme Court decision granted women the right to terminate pregnancies?

Roe v. Wade

Which of the following terms refers to an advantage that men have when employed in female-dominated occupations?

glass escalator

Which of the following terms refers to expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females?

gender roles

The belief that men play a variety of gender roles, including a nurturing-caring role and an effeminate-gay role, in addition to their traditional gender role of dominating women, is called:

multiple masculinities

An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity, is called:

the glass ceiling

Which of the following terms is used to refer to the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of a society?

institutional discrimination

According to disengagement theory, society withdraws from the elderly by segregating them:

A) residentially.
B) recreationally.
C) all of these answers are correct!*******
D) educationally.

Which of the following terms is used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions?

instrumentality

The hijab is

the type of head scarf worn by Muslim women

According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, the expressive role is performed by:

women

According to the Census Bureau, what percentage of women who are pregnant with their first child work full time?

57 percent

Expulsion refers to the process of

expelling a group of people from a territory

Which of the following victim statuses may motivate a hate crime?

A) sexual orientation
B) race/ethnicity
C) all of these answers are correct!******
D) religion

What term is used by sociologists to describe a group that is set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance?

racial group

Which of the following terms refers to a negative attitude toward an entire category of people?

prejudice

Genocide refers to the process of:

deliberately and systematically killing an entire people or the members of a nation

A stereotype is a (an):

unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences within the group

The practice of assuming that people who fit certain descriptions are likely to be engaged in illegal activities is referred to as:

racial profiling

Ethnocentrism refers to:

the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life are superior to all others

An ethnic group is a group:

that is set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns

A minority group is a group:

whose members have significantly less control over their own lives than the members of a dominant group

Racism is defined as:

a belief that one race is supreme and that all others are innately inferior.

Institutional discrimination is the:

denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of society

Characteristics of national origin or distinctive cultural patterns are used primarily by a society to set apart:

ethnic groups.

Exploitation theory is a:

Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism

Amalgamation refers to the process of:

combining a majority group and a minority group through intermarriage to form a new group

An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual's gender, race, or ethnicity is known as:

a glass ceiling.

Segregation refers to the act of:

physically separating two groups; it is often imposed on a minority group by a dominant group

Hate crime laws are directed at crimes involving issues of:

A) all of these answers are correct!********
B) race/ethnicity.
C) religion.
D) sexual orientation.

Which sociologist observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a situation or person but also to the meaning that situation or person has for them?

William I. Thomas

Which of the following is a minority group in the United States?

women

Earnings that immigrants to the U.S. send back to their families in Mexico are referred to as:

remittances.

The project sponsored by the United Nations to eliminate extreme poverty worldwide is called the

Millenium Project

In large developing nations, the most socially significant mobility is:

the movement out of poverty.

In Kenya and Tanzania, it is illegal for women to:

own a house.

Dependency theory is defined as:

an approach which contends that as developing countries make economic advances, they remain weak and subservient to core nations

The area of common culture between Mexico and the United States is referred to as:

the borderlands.

According to the text, which multinational corporation is the highest revenue earner?

Wal-Mart

Colonialism is defined as:

the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period

Sociologists are quick to note that terms such as modernization and development contain a (an) __________ bias.

ethnocentric

Extreme inequality of resources in the world was initiated by:

the Industrial Revolution

Multinational corporations have established "global offices" as well as global factories in nations all over the world.

True

In Mexico, what percent of the population has a high school education?

13 percent

The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas is known as:

globalization

Modernization refers to the:

process by which a society moves from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies

Commercial organizations headquartered in one country that own or control other corporations or subsidiaries throughout the world are referred to as:

multinational corporations.

The continuing dependence of former colonies on foreign countries is called:

neocolonialism

Which of the following is a core nation?

Germany

According to Figure 9-2 in the text, some poor countries like Nigeria have a low standard of living but a high level of:

population

According to world systems analysis, the United States, Japan, and Germany are all core nations.

True

The goal of the United Nations is to eliminated extreme poverty in the world by the year:

2015

Wealth is:

all of a person's material assets, including land, stocks, and other types of property

A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is called:

social inequality

Max Weber referred to people's opportunities to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable experiences as:

life chances

Karl Marx used the term proletariat to refer to:

the working class

Max Weber defined __________ as the ability to exercise one's will over others.

power

Which of the following terms did Karl Marx use to refer to an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect the class's objective position?

false consciousness

A status group refers to:

people who share the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class position.

Which of the following refers to the movement of individuals or groups from one position of society's stratification system to another?

social mobility

Which of the following statements about slavery is true?

It is considered the most extreme form of social inequality.

Achieved status is a social position:

attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts

Capitalism is an economic system in which:

the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profit

The objective method of assessing social class assigns individuals to classes on the basis of:

criteria such as occupation, education, income, and place of residence

A class system employs a social ranking based primarily on:

economic position

A system of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection was known as a (an):

estate system.

Prestige refers to the:

respect and admiration with which an occupation is regarded by society

An individual's salary and wages are referred to as:

income.

Which sociologist maintained that a person's position in a stratification system reflects some combination of their class, status, and power?

Max Weber

Karl Marx used the concept of class consciousness to refer to:

a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about social change

Which term is used to refer to the reputation that a specific person has within an occupation?

esteem

Max Weber uses the term class to refer to people who share a similar level of:

wealth and income.

Which term refers to a disease or illness that cannot be understood apart from its specific social context?

culture-bound syndrome

Mortality rates are the:

incidence of death in a given population

Research in the U.S. and other countries has consistently shown that people in the lower classes have:

higher rates of mortality and disability

In comparison with men, women have lower rates of:

A) all of these*********
B) consumption of alcohol.
C) employment in dangerous occupations.
D) cigarette smoking.

The Exxon Valdez incident in 1989 illustrates the nature of:

water pollution

Which sociologist developed the concept of the sick role?

Talcott Parsons

By the year 2015, total expenditures for health care in the U.S. are expected to exceed what figure?

$4.2 trillion

The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of infants under one year old per how many live births in a given year?

1,000

In what year did the U.S. government enact both Medicare and Medicaid—two national healthcare programs receiving federal funding?

1965

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