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Judicial Activism

an interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court), Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values.

Judicial Restraint

Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say., A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that duty strictly to the legislatures

Judicial Review

the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional, the right of the supreme court to determine if a law violates the constitution

Line Item Veto

Presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

Mandatory Spending

spending on certain programs that is mandated, or required by existing law

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