two categories of general senses
two general visceral senses
touch, pressure, proprioception, temperature, pain
five general somatic senses
special senses have ___ ___ receptors that provide specific information about the environment
olfaction (smell) responds to airborne molecules called ____ entering the nasal cavity
what kind of neurons are olfactory neurons in the olfactory epithelium? (multipolar, bipolar, unipolar)
___ ___ have receptors that respond to dissolved substances
receptors activate ___ ___, which results in ion channels opening, depolartization and AP generation
nerves, bulb, interneurons
axons from the olfactory neurons extend as olfactory ___ to the olfactory ___, where they synapse with ____
axons from interneurons form the olfactory ___, which connect to the olfactory ___
most taste buds are located in the epithelium of ___
palate, lips, throat
other than the tongue, where are three places taste buds are found?
of the four types of papillae, how many contain taste buds? what do the other(s) have?
taste, basilar, supporting
three types of cells in a taste bud
sodium, sour, sweet, bitter, umami
five basic types of taste
something that tastes sour is composed of ____, and something bitter is composed of ___
the taste type that detects "meat" taste is called ____. it's elicited by the amino acid ____ and related compounds
taste is strongly influenced by ___ sensations
2 other stimuli the tongue can detect other than taste
the ___ nerve (#) carries taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
the ___ nerve (#) carries taste sensations from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue
the ___ nerve (#) carries taste sensations from the epiglottis
medulla oblongata, thalamus, cerebral cortex
the neural pathways for taste extend from the ____ to the ____ and to the ____
sense danger, weight gain/loss
smell disorders are often caused by aging, and lead to not being able to sense ___ and/or radical ____
eye, accessory structures, sensory neurons
three components of the visual system
eyeball, optic nerve
two components of the eye
five, foreign objects, lubricate
the eyelids consist of ___ tissue layers. they protect the eyes from ___, and help ____ by spreading tears over their surface
an accessory structure called the ____ covers the inner eyelid and the anterior part of the eye
the white part of the eye is the ___ and is contiguous with the ___
gland, canaliculi, nasolacrimal
the lacrimal apparatus consists of the lacrimal ___, lacrimal ___, and ___ duct
follow moving objects, shape
the extrinsic eye muscles enable the eye to ___, and maintain the ___ of the eyeball
four, rectus muscles
the number and name of the muscles that move the eye laterally and vertically
number and name of muscles that are responsible for eye rotation (in the vertical plane)
fibrous, vascular, nervous
three layers of the eyeball
the fibrous layer of the eyeball has what two components?
choroid, ciliary body, iris
the vascular layer of the eyeball contains what three structures?
the nervous layer of the eye is composed of the ___
fluids that fill the eyeball's internal cavity
fibrous, four-fifths, shape, muscle attachment
the sclera is in what layer of the eye? composes the posterior ____ of the eye. it maintains the ___ of the eyball and provides a site for _____.
fibrous, one-fifth, refracts
the cornea is in what layer of the eye? it composes the anterior ___ of the eye. it's transparent and ____ light that enters the eye
the structure in the eye that in animals reflects light, but in humans is black to prevent reflection of light inside the eye. this structure is part of what layer?
ring, process, vascular
the ciliary body is composed of the ciliary ___ and the ciliary ____. it is in which of the three layers of the eye?
ciliary process, vascular
this part of the ciliary body produces aqueous humor. it is in what layer of the eye?
ciliary ring, vascular
what changes the shape of the lens? what layer of the eye is it in?
lens, smooth muscle, vascula
the ciliary ring surrounds the ___ and is composed of ___ ___ bundles. it is part of the ciliary body, which is in what layer of the eye?
iris, sphincter, vascular
the ___ is smooth muscle regulated by the ANS. the ____ pupillae is for close vision and bright light. what layer of the eye is it in?
dilator pupillae, iris
the ____ dilates the pupils. it is part of the ____
what controls the amount of light entering the pupil?
retina, macula (fovea centralis), optic disc
three components of the nervous layer of the eye
the retina is in the ____ layer of the eybal and has _____ cells, which respond to light
macula (fovea centralis), photoreceptor, color
the ____ (aka ____ ) is the area of greatest sensitivity to light. it has the highest concentration of _____ cells, and is very important in what type of vision?
optic disc, nervous, no
the _____ is through which nerves exit and blood vessels enter the eye. it is part of the ___ layer, and has ____ photoreceptor cells
this structure is the "blind spot" of the eye
anterior, posterior, vitreous
the three chambers in the eye
the anterior chamber of the eye is between the ___ and the ___
the posterior chamber of the eye is between the ___ and the ___
posterior to the lens
the vitreous chamber of the eye is where?
this fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye
this fills the vitreous chamber of the eye
supports, nourishes, removes waste
the aqueous humor does what three important things for the cornea, which has no blood vessels
aqueous humor is produced by the ____ processes as a blood ____
the aqueous humor is returned to the circulation through what sinus? (canal of schlemm)
shape, lens, retina, refraction, intraocular
the vitreous humor helps maintain the ___ of the eyeball, holds the ___ and ___ in place, functions in _____ of light in the eye, and contributes to ____ pressure
what are the two parts of the eye that have no blood vessels (avascular)
epithelium, lens fibers
the lens is composed of what two types of cell tissue
anterior cells in the lens that differentiate into lens fibers
cells in the eye's lens filled with the transparent crystallin
all energy waves of light from short gamma rays to long radio waves
focal point, focused
converging light rays meet at the __ and are said to be ____
in focusing (light refracting) of the eye, this structure is responsible for most of the convergence
this structure in the eye helps focus, and adjusts the convergence by changing shape
cornea, lens, aqueous and vitreous humor
four components that refract light in the eye
when relaxation of the ciliary muscles causes the lens to flatten, it causes the ______ eye
thicken, 20 feet
the far point of vision is the point at which the lens doesn't have to ___ to focus. it's usually ___ ____ or more from the eye
near point of vision
the closest point an object can come to the eye and still be focused
accomodation, constriction, convergence
three things that MUST happen for the eye to focus < 20 feet away are: _____ by the lens, ____ of the pupil, and _____ of the eyes
accomodation by the lens in focusing the eye is _____ of the ciliary muscles that causes the lens to become more _____
____ of the pupil in focusing increases the depth of focus
constriction of the pupil
what in focusing the eye increases the depth of focus?
convergence of the eyes is _____ ______
medial rotation to help focus the eyes is called ______
the change in ____ of the eye enables the eye to focus on objects < 20 feet away
the ____ of the retina provfides a black backdrop for increasing visual acuity
rods and cones, which are photoreceptors, synapse with ___ cells, which synapse with ___ cells to form the optic nerve
____ in the retina are responsible for non-color vision and night vision
a purple pigment in discs consisting of the protein opsin covalently bound to a yellow photosensitive pigment called retinal
opsin, retinol, discs
rhodopsin is composed of what two substances? where is rhodopsin located in the eye?
exposure to light activates what photosensitive substance?
when rhodopsin is split by light, it results in what?
light adaptation is caused by a ____ of rhodopsin
light adaptation is caused by reduction of what substance?
dark adaptation is caused by what?
what structures in the retina are responsible for color vision and visual acuity?
three, iodopsin photopigment
how many types of cones are there? what's different about them?
fovea centralis, macula
most visual images are focused on the ____ and the ___
what structure of the retina has almost 100% cones?
other than in the fovea centralis, in the remaining macula there are more ____ than ___
most rods are in the ____ of the retina
what two types of cells in the retina can modify information sent to the brain?
_____ in the inner layers of the retina enhance contrast between the edges of objects
interneurons in the inner layers of the retina _____ between the edges of objects
ganglion cell axons
what type of axons form the optic nerve?
ganglion cell axons
the optic chiasm is composed of what type of cells?
ganglion cell axons
____ form the optic tracts
nerve, chiasm, tracts
ganglion cell axons form the optic ___, optic ___, and optic ___
all senses except ____ come through the thalamus
ganglion cell axons, which form the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tracts, extend to the ___ and do what?
optic radiations, visual cortex
after ganglion cell neurons synapse in the thalamus, the neurons form optic ___ that project to the ___
depth perception is a property of ____ vision
in the optic chiasm, axons from the ___ part of the retina cross and project to the opposite side of the brain. axons from the ___ side travel ipsilaterally
damage to the optic chiasm would result in loss of what?
peripheral vision would be damaged if this part of the eye was injured
head, tympanic membrane
the external ear extends from the outside of the ___ to the ___
the middle ear is filled with what?
set of fluid-filled chambers medial to the middle ear
malleus, incus, stapes, oval window
three bones and a vestibule in the inner ear
the inner ear functiojns in both hearing and ____
the fleshy part of the external ear
external acoustic meatus
passage way that leads from outside of the ear to the tympanic membrane
the external acoustic meatus is lined with ___ and ___ glands
part of the ear that transfers sound energy to the middle ear ossicles
a small, air-filled, mucosa-lined cavity flanked laterally by the eardrum and medially by the oval and round windows
malleus, incus, stapes
three small bones in the middle ear
malleus, incus, stapes
the three auditory ossicles
the ____ transmit vibratory motion of the eardrum to the oval window
tensor tympani, stapedius
excessive vibrations in the middle ear are dampened by the constriction of these two muscles
the ___ tube, also called the ___ tube, connects the middle ear to the pharynx
the part of the middle ear that equalizes pressure in the middle ear cavity with the external air pressure
two parts of the inner ear are the ___ labyrinth and the ___ labyrinth
part of the inner ear that contains interconnecting, fluid-filled tunnels and chambers within the temporal bone
within the bony labyrinth
the membranous labyrinth is located where?
vestibule, semicircular, cochlea
the bony labyrinth in the inner ear contains the ____ and _____ canals, primarily involved in balance, and the ____, which is involved in hearing
in the inner ear, series of membranous sacs within the bony labyrinth
the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear is filled with a potassium-rich fluid called _____
in the inner ear, the space between the bony and membranous labyrinths is filled with what?
what fluid fills the series of membranous sacs (membranous labyrinth) within the bony labyrinth?
the difference between endolymph and perilymph is that endolymph is ____
the perilymph does not contain which element?
spiral-shaped canal within the temporal bone. part of the inner ear
the cochlea is divided into three compartments by the ____ and the ____ membranes
scala vestibuli, scala tympani
these two compartments in the cochlea of the inner ear each contain perilymph
the scala vestibuli and scala tympani in the cochlea are filled with what?
what chamber in the cochlea contains endolymph and the spiral organ?
endolymph, spiral organ
the cochlear duct contains what fluid and what structure
the ___ contained in the cochlear duct contains inner hair cells and outer hair cells, which attach to the tectorial membrane
inner hair cells, outer hair cells, tectorial
the spiral organ in the cochlear duct consists of ____ cells and ____ cells, which attach to the ____ membrane
the hair-like projections from the hair cells in the spiral organ
the steriocilia are very long, hair-like ______
pitch, volume, timbre
___ is determined by the frequency of the sound waves. ___ is determined by the amplitude of sound waves. ___ is the resonant quality (overtones) of sound
frequency, amplitude, resonant
pitch is determined by the ___ of sound waves. volume is determined by the ____ of sound waves. timbre is the ___ quality (overtones) of sound.
axons from the vestibulocochlear nerve synapse in the ____, whose neurons then project axons to the inferior ____, where they synapse
when hearing neurons leave the medulla, where to they go? what do they do?
in the neuronal pathway for hearing, thalamic neurons extend to the ____ cortex, and ____ neurons project to the cranial nerve nuclei responsible for controlling muscles that dampen sound in the middle ear
____ balance evaluates the position of the head relative to gravity
___ balance detects linear acceleration and deceleration
the uricle and saccule in the vestibule of the inner ear contain maculae made of ___ cells. hairs are embedded in the ____ membrane
gelatinous mass in the vestibule of the inner ear that moves in response to gravity
____ balance evaluates movements of the head
____ canals are involved in dynamic balance
dynamic balance evaluates ____ of the head
the ___ of each semicircular canal contains the crista ampullaris, which has hair cells with hairs embedded in a gelatinous mass called the ____ because of its shape
nerve that activates the inferior rectus muscle of the eye
nerve that activates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
nerve that activates the medial rectus muscle of the eye
nerve that activates the superior rectus muscle of the eye
nerve that activates the inferior oblique muscle of the eye
nerve that activates the superior oblique muscle of the eye
vascular, ring, process
the ciliary body is part of the ____ layer of the eye and consists of the ciliary ___ and the ciliary ____
the ciliary ring is a ___ ring of tissue surrounding the ___
what changes the shape of the lens in the eye?
what produces the eye's aqueous humor?
what smooth muscle of the iris facilitates distant vision and dim light?
what muscle controls the amount of light entering the pupil?
the macula is also called the ____
macula, fovea centralis
area in the nervous layer of the eye that has the greatest sensitivity to light. this is also called what?
the retina has what kind of cells which respond to light?
highest concentration of photoreceptor cells, thus the area of greatest sensitivity to light, is what part of the nervous layer of the eye?
what concentration of photoreceptor cells does the optic disc have?
lens fibers are cells filled with the transparent protein ____
two structures of the eye that have no blood vessels
light striking a ___ surface refracts outward
light striking a ____ surface refracts inward
in front of
myopia (nearsightedness) is when a lens is too convex and causes the focal point to be too much ____ ____ ____ the correct point in the retina
in focusing, the point of the eye responsible for most of the convergence
the focusing system of the eye could also be called the ____ ____ system
in focusing the eye, the ___ adjusts the convergence by changing shape
relaxed, high, flattened
in distant vision, the ciliary muscles in the ciliary body are ____, the tension in the suspensory ligaments is ___, and the lens is _____
in near vision, the ciliary muscles in the ciliary body ____, moving the ciliary body toward the ____
in near vision, the tension in the suspensory ligaments is high or low?
in near vision, is the lens thickened or flattened?
when an object is less than ____ from the eye, the image falling on the retina is no longer in focus
accommodation by the lens, constriction of the pupil, and convergence of the eyes all have to occur if an object is ____ than 20 feet from the eye
contraction of the ciliary muscles that cause the lens to become more spherical is called ______
change in the lens shape that enables the eye to focus on objects < 20 feet aware
constriction of the pupil increases the ____ of focus
medial rotation of the eyes is called ______
rods and cones in the retina synapse with what structure of cells?
ganglion, optic nerve
bipolar cells, after synapsing with rods and cones in the retina, synapse with ____ cells, which form the ___ ___
pigmented, epithelial, melanin
the outer layer of the retina is called the ____ layer. it is a single layer of ____ cells filled with _____..
photoreceptor, bipolar, ganglionic
the neural layer of the retina contains what three layers of neurons?
the photoreceptor layer in the neural layer of the retina is composed of ___ and ____
pigmented, neural, rod, cone, bipolar, ganglion
after the choroid layer comes the ___ layer, then the ____ layer. This third layer is composed of ___ and ___ cells, which synapse with ____ cells, which synapse with ____ cells before going to the optic nerve