General Characteristics of the Endocrine System

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The endocrine system functions with the nervous system in....

communication and control of the body

Main function

to maintain homeostasis

Cells, tissues, and organs of the endocrine system

ductless; secrete hormones,

paracrine glands

affect only neighboring cells

autocrine glands

leave gland but only affect cell that secreted it

exocrine glands

have ducts; deliver their product directly to a specific site

neurons

release neurotransmitters

endocrine glands

release hormones

hormones are released...

into the extracellular space surrounding endocrine cells

hormone

a chemical messenger, steorid or non-steroid based

hormones play a key role...

in maintaining homeostasis; the can activate or inactive genes

prostaglandins

paracrine substances that are potent in small amounts and are synthesized just before release before rapidly inactivating

prostaglandins functions

regulate blood pressure, contract smooth muscles in walls of uterus (menstrual crams/ labor contractions), inhibit secretion on hydrochloric acid from wall of stomach

Prostagladins can activate or inhibit ___ which ___

adenylate cyclase; controls cAMP production or alters a cell's response to a hormone

hormonal secretions are....

primarily controlled by negative feedback

half-life

time it takes for half a molecule to break down

short half-life

hormone is quick acting

long half-life

hormone is slow acting

trophic hormones

help stimulate other glands to produce hormones

Pituitary gland

lies at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; consists of anterior and posterior portions

Anterior Pituitary gland

carry out most secretions, rich capillary bed, enclosed in a capsule that houses specialized epithelial cells

Posterior Pituitary gland

structurally consists of nerve fibers and neuroglia epithelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland; nerve fibers originate in the hypothalamus

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