Introduction to Children's Literature - Week 1

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Week 1 Materials in the Required Readings folder: Introduction to Children's Literature

A story that relates its events in strictly in the order in which they occur is using.

a chronological or linear plot

Why is it important that children begin reading as early as possible? Select the best answer.

Elementary school ****
Children's literature is often expensive to produce--publishers need to be able to sell in quantity for each age group or we will not have any children's literature at all.****

The main genres of literature are . . .

poetry, drama, and prose.

Multiple choice. What standard did C. S. Lewis set for quality children's literature? The answer to this question is in a required reading lecture page in Blackboard.

Any work that an adult cannot enjoy is not suitable for children to read either.

A pun is

a play on words where the same or very similar word is used to convey two different meanings at the same time.

Multiple choice. What is the difference between "read-along" memorization and any other kind of memorization? Select the BEST answer.

Read-along memorization means that the child can repeat the words of a story along with someone reading the story aloud (or correct the reader who diverges from the story as written); straight memorization means a person can repeat written or other forms of information or material without any prompts.

"Genre" means

A type, category, or classification of literature

Although several answers below are problems with stereotyped characters in children's literature, which problem is the most serious? Select the BEST answer below.

They can be confusing or alienating for children whose experiences do not match the stereotypes

Multiple Choice. Which work of moral and political satire on 18th century England is often identified as children's literature because the satire uses fantasy?

Gulliver's Travels

Although all of the answers below are possible, and may be true of stories about adolescents in addition to the main plot conflict, which ONE is the most common and/or most popular plot conflict in stories about and for adolescents?

person against self

Multiple choice. Select the best answer.
Books often begin at an interesting part of the story and then give earlier events from the story when that background is necessary to understand the current action. Those brief plot elements from the past are called

flashbacks.

"Lyric" means

Song-like, originally something that could be sung with music created by a lyre.

Multiple choice. Select the best answer. Although not intended then as children's literature in the modern sense, one of the earliest printed books of children's literature is . . .

Aesop's Fables (printed 1476).

The term "dialog" applied to discussing literature means

Conversations between two characters, especially in a literary work.

True novels, as opposed to Chapter Books, and poetry conveying thought-provoking ideas are suitable for children aged . . .

9-12

The term "vehicle" in literary analysis means. . .

something in literature that "carries" a meaning, such as a rose carrying the meaning "love."

A picture storybook with a simple plot about daily routines and familiar objects has been designed primarily for the child . . .

ages 2-4.

Multiple choice. Select the best answer.
"Performance reading" means. . .

reading a book aloud with different people reading different sections or one reader using different voices for different characters

Select the answer which is entirely correct.
Which of the following are the main parts of a plot?

Exposition, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action, Denouement

"Published for the general public primarily for entertainment" defines the . . .

trade book.

Suspension of disbelief means

accepting for the purposes of enjoying a story that fictional characters, events, settings, etc. are "real" even though we know they are not literally "real" outside of the story.

Of the following plot organization methods, which one is not suitable for early readers?

flashbacks.

Didactic, as it applies to children's literature, means. . .

anything that teaches.

The term "bowdlerized" means

re-writing a classic, adult work, usually just by removing elements connected to sex, to make that work suitable for children

Which important research study found that reading aloud to children was an effective method of teaching children to read?

Becoming a Nation of Readers (Richard Anderson, et al.)

Popular children's literature in the late 19th and early 20th century emphasized the bad consequences of children not being obedient.

True

The report of the National Reading Panel (2000) did NOT identify the following as essential instructional components in the teaching of reading on the grounds that they could not be tested scientifically:

reading aloud, silent reading.

An allusion in writing is

a reference to an element in an earlier literary work or movie

Books that feature clearly defined objects and bright colors in contrast with a plain and lightly colored or white background have been designed primarily for . . .

babies and young children age 0-2.

True or false?
Narrative means any kind of recounting of events, such as a story or a written description of what you observe in a chemistry experiment.

True

Research findings on the fields of literature and reading indicate that . . .

reading aloud, especially reading to children, can improve children's reading ability and language development

A Native American woman living in a secluded North Carolina valley tells how, in 1806 on the Cherokee Indian Trail of Tears between North Carolina and the Oklahoma Territory, she and her sister escaped their captors, made their way back to their homeland, and lived in hiding for many years.
Although this scenario could have 3 of the 4 answers below, which literary feature is definitely present and MOST important in classifying such a story?

person-against-nature****

A story with multiple chunks of plot each with its own rising action and climax, working together towards the climax for the whole story is said to have . . .

an episodic plot.

Although research is still being conducted, most studies into children's perception of color in infancy say that children perceive the color blue first.

False

The most important feature for visuals in books for infants is

contrast

What is a "basal reader"?

an early education text book intended to teach the basics of reading

Newberry Awards

recognize the principles for children's literature promoted by John Newberry, especially using entertainment to instruct.

The NCTE Poetry Award. . .

recognizes and fosters excellence in children's poetry

What is the difference between narrative poetry and lyric poety? Select the BEST answer.

Narrative poetry must tell a story; lyric poetry must be "song-like."

What type of rhyme is used in this example?
A little learning is a dangerous thing
Drink deep or tast not the Perian Spring,
For there shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
and drinking largely sobers us again.

masculine rhyme

Multiple choice. What type of poetry is this? (Select the BEST answer)
A diner while dining at Crewe
Found quite a large mouse in his stew;
Said the waiter, "Don't shout,
And wave it about,
Or the rest will be wanting one, too."

Limerick

What purpose does rhyme have in poetry? Select the BEST answer from the options below.

It forms patterns and units of lines, to show relationships between and among lines.

Which Figure of Thought is in this sentence:
The fresh jumbo shrimp were a much better choice for lunch than the fresh frozen cold hotdogs.

oxymoron

Which of the following is NOT a criterion for sonnets? Select the BEST answer.

Sonnets must be in iambic pentameter and end with a couplet (2 rhyming lines)

As Julia Kristeva uses the term, what is the symbolic? Select the BEST answer.

The element in language involving specific and literal meanings (denotation).

What does "preverbal" mean? Select the best answer.

The developmental stage before a child learns to use words

Poetry that is written and printed in a shape which mirrors the poem's subject is called

concrete poetry

Which of the following describes a quatrain? Select the BEST answer.

A set of four lines forming one unit in a poem.

What is the definition of "personification"? Select the BEST answer from the options below.

Using words that suggest qualities of life to describe something inanimate.

What is another term for a play? Select the BEST answer.

Drama

What is "verse" in its specialized meaning for studying literature? Select the BEST answer.

The general term for all poetry, without any implications about quality or literary merit.

Which sentence below is an example of euphemism? Select the BEST answer.

a nice metaphor or periphrasis for something unpleasant.

Which is more important to young children for poetry, figures of thought or figures of sound?

Figures of Sound

The term "Children's Theater" refers specifically to what type of plays/drama for children?

a play intended to be read silently rather than being performed.
****************

a play with children as actors where the experience for the performers is at least as important as the pleasure of the audience.
****************

What is a metaphor? Select ALL that apply.

Has two parts: tenor and vehicle
A specific type of comparison opposed to simile
A general (generic) term for all sorts of poetic comparison.

Frequent repetition of the same VOWEL sound within a line of poetry describes which Figure of Sound? Select the BEST answer.

Assonance

What is "doggerel"? Select the BEST answer.

Poetry that "forces" the meter and/or has no subtlety in its use of rhyme.

Which of the following accurately defines "Reader-Response" criticism? Select the BEST answer.

Reader response criticism is based on the idea that each reader's background and/or experience combine with what s/he reads to create a slightly different work for each reader.

Who was the author of the first published collection of children's poetry, and what is the title of that collection?
Select the answer that has both the author and the title correct.

Charles Perrault, Mother Goose

The Charlotte B. Chorpenning Award is awarded each year for . . .

an author's body of work in children's poetry.
********

the best anthology of plays published in the previous year.

*********the best anthology of plays published in the previous year.
******

What is "nonsense poetry"? Select the BEST answer.

Poetry that looks and sounds like it should mean something but, either through non-existent words or illogical content, does not.

Which of the following features is NOT part of "The New Criticism"? Select the best answer.

Finding out information about the author

Which of the following sentences provides an example of alliteration? Select the BEST answer.

Betty Botter made some batter, but, she said, this batter's bitter.

According to Julia Kristeva's theories of the semiotic and symbolic, what should be the long-term effect of reading poetry to children?

Reading poetry aloud connects the semiotic to the symbolic which enhances the development of language acquisition.

Which ONE of the following sentences has an example of hyperbole? Select the BEST answer.

His arms dangled a mile from his sleeves.

As Julia Kristeva uses the term, what is the "semiotic"? Select the BEST answer.

The element in language that has to do with communication outside of the literal meanings of words such as tone, emphasis, and "body language."

Figures of Thought are . . .

a type of figure of speech that depend on manipulating ideas.

In a picture where the main subject is facing away from the reader/viewer and from other characters, of the options below, what emotion is the artist likely trying to convey? Select the BEST answer.

Isolation

Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Concept books

can convey very basic concepts for small children, such as size or opposities, as well as more advanced concepts such as the difference in astronomy between a galaxy and a nebula.

True or false?
Graphic novels are exclusively intended for children.

False

Multiple choice. Select the best answer.
Van Gogh's Starry Night is an example of

the Expressionist art style.

Other than about a $20 difference in their prices, of the options below, what would tell you whether you are looking at a comic books or a graphic novels?

the art work in comic books is inferior and comic books have very short stories or story segments.

Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Baby books should be

one picture per page placed so that the emphasis is on the picture.

Which of the following answers apply to this question: What practical purpose do foregrounding, backgrounding, and perspective have?
Select all that apply and none that do not.

-These elements contribute to making a picture appear 3-dimensional.
-These elements can establish, in a picture with lots of elements, which one is most important or which two are equally important.

What are two reasons for using "sans serif" fonts (typefaces) instead of "serif" fonts in books for young children?

The serifs provide additional information to process and letters with serifs do not look like the letters children learn to print.

Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Books with elaborate interactive elements such as complex pop-ups, papers to fold or unfold, or envelopes to open are called

toy books

Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete the following sentence:
Good picture books

contribute to children's ability to read but also develop artistic appreciation.

Of the options below, when we look at a page, what naturally attracts our attention unless the artist has used artistic devices to direct our attention elsewhere?

a large element (picture, part of a picture, or text) at the center of the page.

Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
An example of the repeated patterns essential to a Pattern Book is

a refrain that sets up an answer, such as "What do you see?" in Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See.

Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Picture book illustrations . . .

are part of telling a story or essential to the story's meaning.

Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Picture storybooks

are what we most frequently mean by "picture books": the illustrations must either convey or significantly supplement the plot, characters and setting.

Which of the following answers BEST defines "perspective" as it applies to illustrations in children's literature?

Perspective means where the viewer's eye is directed in an illustration.

What does establishing "angle" tell you about a picture?

It tells you where the implied viewer is, such as just outside the picture or looking at the picture from a distance or looking in the same direction as an illustrated character.

Which of the following is an essential feature of quality art in children's books?

Primary colors (e.g., pastels are not suitable for children's books for any age).
*******************

Size (e.g., all pictures must take up at least 1/4 of the page).
*************

An illustrated book is just another term for a picture book. True or False?

False

Which of the following would help establish age-appropriateness?

whether the pictures are simple or complex ("busy").

Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
In an Interactive book. . .

a child gets a sound or new picture by doing a physical action such as pressing on a picture or lifting a flap.

Multiple choice. Select the best answer.
The impression of how a pictured object would feel (as in touch) is called

texture

The illustrations in Dr. Seuss books are a good example of which art style?

Comic

Which of the answers below BEST explains foregrounding and backgrounding?

A picture with distinct foregrounding and backgrounding establishes some elements as close to the viewer (foregrounded), some elements as farther away, and some elements as very far away (background).

An illustrated book is just another term for a picture book. True or False?

False

Complete this sentence with the BEST answer below:
Of the different art styles, which ones are most often the best for children's books?

realism, magical realism, and cartoon art.

Photographs for children's books must be in color. True or False?

False

Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence.
Books for "reluctant readers" who are 6 years old or older include

comic books and graphic novels suitable for children.

Multiple choice. Select the best answer to complete this sentence:
Artistic media as relevant to illustrations include

watercolors, pastels, ink, photography, and oils.

Of the usual division of American children's multicultural literature by race, which race has had the greatest percentage of American literature focused on that race?

Black Americans

Books representing diverse cultures

began to rise in number in the 1990s.

Select the best ending for this sentence:

Children's books that stereotype girls and women as exclusively passive are often classified as multicultural because. . .

gender stereotyping issues may lead to prejudice similar to how race or religion stereotypes may lead to prejudice.

Which of the following are problems in translated literature?

-Even good translations are based to some extent on the translator's understanding of a work.
-The literal meaning of standard phrases and cliches are conveyed differently in different languages, such as the English "buying a pig in a poke" and French "acheter chat en poche" (to buy (a) cat in (a) bag) both mean buying something when you don't really know what you are getting, but have different associations connected to pigs vs. cats.
-Literal, word for word translations are awkward and do not accurately convey the "sense" of the original.

Which of the following may be problems in the plan of assigning literature reflecting the culture and interests of "resistant readers"?

-The culture and interests of some resistant readers may be incompatible with reading.

-No age and reading-level appropriate books might exist that reflect a particular resistant reader's culture and interests

"Cultural authenticity" means that

members of the culture being portrayed must accept the portrayal as accurate (true).

What does "cultural mosaic" mean?

an approach that encourages a country's inhabitants to join a dominant culture.
*************

a type of art that creates images by assembling or combining small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
************

Which one of the following can be a problem for multicultural books on socio-economic status?

They often connect socio-economic status with race, promoting perspectives that all Black Americans are poor or all Jewish Americans are rich.

What was the "Underground Railroad."

A network of people who helped slaves escape from slavery to Northern States where slavery was illegal or to Canada.

Which of the cultures below are under-represented in children's multicultural literature?

books portraying Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu faiths.

Which of the following questions are based on issues that can interfere with accuracy in multicultural children's literature? Select all that apply.

-Are entirely accurate translations possible?
-Can someone who does not belong to a particular culture write an accurate book about that culture based solely on research?
-Do the experiences based on one part of a culture fully "fit" other parts of the same culture?

Some books that are marketed as "multicultural" may damage understanding rather than promoting it. Which of the following is an example of what would make a book that focuses on another culture damage understanding of that culture?

portrayals of a culture limited to stereotypical activities including those connected with traditional clothing, foods and holidays.

Books classified as international literature in the United States

include books published in any country other than America.

"Dual Language" books

have facing pages with the same story in different languages, usually with two authors, competent in both languages, collaborating.

According to Julius Lester, why did sharks swim beside slave ships?

because so many dead and dying slaves were thrown overboard on the trip to America.

From the following groups/categories, which one is most poorly represented in American children's multicultural literature?

differently-abled cultures such as Deaf culture

Anything that is not text/words "counts" as illustration for children's illustrated books.

False

Which of the following are criteria for children's illustrated books?

-Children's illustrated books should have at least a picture for most pages.
- Illustrations must do something more than decorate the book.
-Illustrations should be consistent (one artistic style or closely related artistic styles or artistic styles that have the same purpose).

"Children's Illustrated books" and "picture books" share some features but differ in their key purpose.

True

Which of the following are types of illustrated book?

-Books with accurate pictures and diagrams to show how to do or make something.
- Books with accurate pictures such as photographs specifically to show what something really looks like in factual books
-Books with accurate pictures to provide background or content.

The term "resistant readers" often assumes that

children able to read, but not reading or reading below grade level, are not trying to learn to read because the literature they have been given is not relevant to them.

What often interferes with parents and elementary/middle school teachers being able to select excellent multicultural works on their own?

Evaluating multicultural literature requires that the evaluator be fluent in both languages (for translated books) and extremely familiar with the specific culture being portrayed.

Officially, multicultural literature in America can be defined as

a literary work that accurately presents minority cultures, specifically any culture other than White, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant and Catholic culture.

"Classic" children's books about races other than Caucasians, such as Little Black Sambo and Last of the Mohicans,

often reinforced stereotypes.

A key value of multicultural literature is

providing awareness of the value of ones own culture if that culture is not "dominant."

Which of the famous people listed below were slaves who in one way or another fought back?

-Sojourner Truth
-Frederick Douglass
-Nat Turner

The key skill for translating literature is artistic merit; translators do not need to understand the language of the work they are translating.
True or false?

False

Most slaves who escaped, according to Julius Lester, were caught and brought back by the white patrols.
True or false?

True

"Multicultural literature" will also belong in another category based on the type of literature, such as Picture Book, Poetry, Traditional Literature, etc.
True or False?

True

Which of the following are true? Select all correct answers and no incorrect answers.

Gerald McDermott has written several children's multicultural traditional tales, including Raven.

Which of the following is true in Raven?

Raven transforms himself into a pine needle which the Chief's granddaughter drinks

Which of the following are TRUE of myth? Select all that apply and none that don't.

-Myth teaches essential elements in a culture's identity: its values and mores.
-Cultures continually develop myths--not all myths are from the distant past.
-Myths are didactic: they teach something (directly or subtly).

Which popular folktale/fairy tale has raised concerns about gender stereotyping?

Cinderella

Creation stories, in terms of their literary classification, are

myths

Cumulative tales are appropriate for

pre-school children as young as three.

Critics who believe that violent fairy tales should be shared in their original version would argue that

the original stories have psychological value such as assuring the child that the monster is no longer a threat.

Roland Barthes wrote

Mythologies

Characters in folk literature typically

are easily identified as good or bad.

Which one of the following attributes is generally true of "tall tales" known as "humorous tales"?

includes traditional jokes such as "Knock, knock" jokes.
***********
anthropomorphize animals
***********

Folktales focusing primarily on royalty and/or nobles are sometimes called

castle tales

Which new ending to a traditional tale would make the tale a "fractured fairy tale"?

The bears in Goldilocks and the Three Bears eating berries rather than porridge.
********
Goldilocks and the Three Bears ending with Goldilocks being mauled to death.
*****

Why are the legends about King Arthur classified as legends rather than fairy tales?

Legends are originally based on real people.

The idea that similar myths and folkstales in cultures widely separate geographically can be explained by fundamental psychological similarity of humans is called

polygenesis

Select all that apply and none that don't. The story about George Washington is an example of

-an example of a legend
-a story that conveys a metaphor for George Washington's character.

Beast tales are a type of

fable

In evaluating works of traditional literature, one should consider

whether spin-off marketing items, such as backpacks, bedding, and dolls, are available.
*********
whether the story is part of the curriculum in the child's school.

*************

According to the article "What's Wrong with Cinderella," why is Disney promoting the "princess" theme?

Princess clothing, such as long, bell-shaped skirts, is easier to draw and therefore reduces animation costs.
*******
They want little girls to become more feminine.
******

Mythologists distinguish between stories that are "mythic" and those that are "myths." What criterion do they use to classify a story as "mythic" vs. "myth"?

How long a myth has survived and how important it is to a cultural identity.

All fairy tales are magic tales; all magic tales are fairy tales.

False

Which of the following are true? Select all correct answers and no incorrect answers.

-Raven is a traditional creation or porquoi tale.
-Raven is a multicultural illustrated or picture book.

Settings in folk literature are

often generic and vague.

The term "epic" refers to

a literary style

Mythologists distinguish between stories that are "mythic" and those that are "myths." What criterion do they use to classify a story as "mythic" vs. "myth"?

How well the story is written.
****************

Stories about Paul Bunyan are what kind of traditional literature?

tall tales.

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