Radiology Biology & Protection (Unit Test 1)

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Which of the following are important properties of the solid state of matter?

1. Rigid (does not flow)
2. Very difficult to compress
3. Has a rigid surface

A. 1 only
B. 1 and 2 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 3 only
E. 1, 2, and 3

E. 1, 2, and 3

What is the definition of energy?

A. Moving of stationary objects
B. Mass times acceleration
C. The rate at which work is done
D. The ability to do work

D. The ability to do work

The alpha particle is composed of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, so it is essentially the nucleus of a:

A. Hydrogen atom
B. Helium atom
C. Cobalt atom
D. Aluminum atom

B. Helium atom

The beta particle is a very high energy ________ which is ejected from the ________ as a result of a nuclear reaction.

Student Response Value Correct Answer
A. Neutron, K shell
B. Proton, nucleus
C. Electron, nucleus
D. Neutron, nucleus

C. Electron, nucleus

All atoms:

A. Are negatively charged elements
B. Are composed of only two sub-atomic particles
C. Have no charge
D. Are positively charged elements

C. Have no charge

The "Principle of the Conservation of Energy" states that:


A. Energy cannot be destroyed, but can be created
B. Energy cannot be created, but can be destroyed
C. Energy changes form, but cannot be created nor destroyed
D. Energy changes form and is just an illusion

C. Energy changes form, but cannot be created nor destroyed

A molecule has a ________ charge and is composed of ________ which are chemically combined.

Student Response Value Correct Answer
A. Negative charge, atoms
B. Positive charge, positrons
C. Neutral, atoms
D. Zero, negatrons

C. Neutral, atoms

The energy of wave motion is termed:

A. Radiant energy
B. Potential energy
C. Nuclear energy
D. Kinetic energy

A. Radiant energy

Magnesium has the symbol Mg. The atoms have 12 protons and 24 nucleons. From this information, the value of "Z" is:

A. 6
B. 12
C. 24
D. 36

B. 12

Which of the following are included as a characteristic of protons?

A. They are located in the nucleus of all atoms
B. They have a unit positive charge
C. They have a mass of approximately one (1)
D. B and C only
E. A, B, and C

E. A, B, and C

Emissions of radiations by radioactive substances is unaffected by:

1. Temperature 2. Pressure 3. Chenical combination

A. 1 only
B. 1 and 2 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 2 and 3 only
E. 1, 2, and 3

E. 1, 2, and 3

Radioactivity is the spontaneous random emission of ionizing radiation by a(an) ________ nucleus.

A. Stable
B. Unstable
C. Pulsating
D. Vibrating
E. Oscilating

B. Unstable

The ejection of radiations in many steps by radioactive substances is called a:

A. Dynamic process
B. Radiologic process
C. Melt down process
D. Decay process

D. Decay process

How many nucleons are in the nucleus of an atom if its A = 58

A. 58
B. 197
C. 238
D. 394
E. 74

A. 58

Which of the following statements are true concerning electrons?

A. They are located in shells (orbits)
B. They have a unit negative charge
C. They have a mass which is approximately 2000 times lighter than the mass of a proton
D. A and B only
E. A, B, and C

E. A, B, and C

Gamma is radiant energy from the:

A. Tube port of x-ray tubes
B. Shells or orbits surrounding the nucleus
C. Nucleus of an atom
D. Moon and other celestial bodies

C. Nucleus of an atom

How many protons does the atom of helium illustrated below possess?

A. 2
B. 4
C. 6
D. 8

A. 2

Nuclear particles are called nucleons, therefore both ________ and ________ are nucleons.

A. Electrons, neutrons
B. Electrons, protons
C. Protons, neutrons
D. Positrons, negatrons
E. Neutrons, electrons

C. Protons, neutrons

Important properties of the gas state of matter include:


A. Flows freely
B. Easy to compress
C. Has no surface
D. B and C only
E. A, B, and C

E. A, B, and C

The energy of motion is called:

Student Response Value Correct Answer
A. Radiant energy
B. Potential energy
C. Nuclear energy
D. Kinetic energy

D. Kinetic energy

Which of the following should be included as important properties of the liquid state of matter?

1. Flows 2. Medium density 3. Difficult to compress 4. Has a surface

Student Response Value Correct Answer
A. 1 and 2 only
B. 2 and 3 only
C. 3 and 4 only
D. 1, 2, and 4 only
E. 1, 2, 3 and 4

E. 1, 2, 3 and 4

The "A" symbol is the:

A. Atomic number
B. Mass number
C. Atomic weight
D. Shell or orbit

B. Mass number

Which of the following statements is true concerning gamma radiation?

A. Charge of 0 (Zero)
B. Range (in air) of many meters
C. Travels at the speed of sound
D. A and B only
E. A, B, and C

D. A and B only

The number of elements known today is ________. Of this number, ________ are manmade.

A. 105, 17
B. 100, 8
C. 92, 16
D. 116, 24

A. 105, 17

If Z = 74 for an element, then its atoms have:

A. 74 x-rays in the nucleus
B. 74 electrons in the nucleus
C. 74 neutrons in the nucleus
D. 74 gamma-rays in the nucleus
E. 74 protons in the nucleus

E. 74 protons in the nucleus

A pure substance which contains molecules all of the same type is a:

A. Mixture
B. Compound
C. Composition
D. Amalgamation

B. Compound

The chart which has an arrangement of the elements according to their properties is called a:

A. Chart of elements
B. Atomic table of elements
C. Radiologic table
D. Periodic table

D. Periodic table

The energy of position is called:

A. Kinetic energy
B. Nuclear energy
C. Potential energy
D. Radiant energy

C. Potential energy

Pertaining to the illustrated hydrogen (deuterium) atom, the letter "B" refers to a(an):

A. Shell or orbit
B. Proton
C. Neutron
D. Nucleus
E. Electron

A. Shell or orbit

Colbalt 27-59 when struck by a neytron produces the artificially radioactive isotope known as cobalt 27-60.

A. True
B. False

A. True

Which of the following represents a form of stored or potential energy?

A. A flying arrow
B. A falling rock
C. A car parked on a hill
D. A falling book

C. A car parked on a hill

An element can be defined as a substance whose atoms have the same number of:

A. Electrons
B. Neutrons
C. Protons
D. Nuclear fragments

C. Protons

Which of the following statements are true concerning neutrons?

A. They are located in the nucleus
B. They have a charge of neutral
C. They have a mass of approximately four (4), which is much heavier than a proton
D. A and B only
E. A, B, and C

D. A and B only

Beryllium has the symbol Be. The atoms have 4 protons and 5 neutrons in the nucleus. From this information, the value of "A" is:

A. 4
B. 5
C. 9
D. 20

C. 9

Which of the following types of radiation is most penetrating?

A. Alpha
B. Beta
C. Gamma
D. All are equally penetrating

C. Gamma

The basic particle of all matter is the:

A. Atom
B. Negatron
C. Positron
D. Neutron

A. Atom

Electric and magnetic fields that fluctuate rapidly as they travel through space, including radio waves, microwaves, visible light, and x-rays are termed:

A. Alpha particles
B. Beta particles
C. Electromagnetic wave
D. Particulate radiation

C. Electromagnetic wave

Exit, or image-formation, radiation is composed of which of the following?

A. Primary photons and Compton-scattered photons
B. Non-interacting and small-angle scattered photons
C. Attenuated photons
D. Absorbed photons

B. Non-interacting and small-angle scattered photons

Which of the following is the radiation unit used for x-ray equipment calibration in which x-ray output is measured directly with an ionization chamber?

A. Sv (rem)
B. Gy (rad)
C. rem (rom)
D. C/kg (R)

D. C/kg (R)

If a patient undergoing x-ray therapy receives a total dose of 3000 rad, the dose may be recorded as ________ if the SI system is used.

A. 6000 Gy
B. 30 Gy
C. 300 rad
D. 30 R

B. 30 Gy

Which of the following is or are not traditional units?

A. C/kg
B. Gy and Sv
C. R, rad, rem
D. A and B

D. A and B

One rad is equivalent to an energy transfer of:

A. 500 erg per gram of irradiated object
B. 300 erg per gram of irradiated object
C. 200 erg per gram of irradiated object
D. 100 erg per gram of irradiated object

D. 100 erg per gram of irradiated object

Which of the following statements concerning the Roentgen is true?

1. It is measured by ions in air
2. It only measures X- and gamma- rays
3. It is the unit of exposure or intensity

A. 1 only
B. 1 and 2 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 3 only
E. 1, 2, and 3

E. 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following contributes significantly to the exposure of the radiographer?

A. Positrons
B. Electrons
C. Compton-scattered photons
D. Compton-scattered electrons

C. Compton-scattered photons

Which of the following defines attenuation?

A. Absorption and scatter
B. Absorption only
C. Scatter only
D. Compton electrons

A. Absorption and scatter

In the radiographic kilovoltage range, which of the following structures will undergo the most photoelectric absorption?

A. Air cavities
B. Compact bone
C. Fat
D. Soft tissue

B. Compact bone

In which of the following x-ray interactions with matter is the energy of the incident photon partially absorbed?


A. Compton
B. Photoelectric
C. Coherent
D. Pair production

A. Compton

When a high atomic number solution is either ingested or injected into human tissue or a structure to visualize it during an imaging procedure, which of the following occurs?

A. Photoelectric interaction becomes greatly decreased, resulting in an increase in the absorbed dose in the body tissues or structures that contain the contrast medium.
B. Photoelectric interaction becomes significantly enhanced, leading to an increase in the absorbed dose in the body tissues or structures that contain the contrast medium.
C. Photoelectric interaction becomes greatly decreased, resulting in an decrease in the absorbed dose in the body tissues or structures that contain the contrast medium.
D. Photoelectric interaction becomes significantly enhanced, leading to a decrease in the absorbed dose in the body tissues or structures that contain the contrast medium.

B. Photoelectric interaction becomes significantly enhanced, leading to an increase in the absorbed dose in the body tissues or structures that contain the contrast medium

Which of the following influences attenuation?

1. Effective stomic number of the absorber
2. Mass density
3. Thickness of the absorber

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

D. 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following characteristics primarily differentiates the probability of occurrence of the various interactions of x-radiation with human tissue?

A. Energy of the incoming photon
B. Direction of the incident photon
C. X-ray beam intensity
D. Exposure time

A. Energy of the incoming photon

A decrease in contrast of the image by adding an additional, unwanted density (radiographic fog) results from which of the following interactions between x-radiation and matter?

1. Compton scattering 2. Pair production 3. Photoelectric absorption

A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

A. 1 only

The interactions of x-ray photons with any atoms of biologic matter are:
A. Able to be preplanned to selective atoms in order to limit radiation exposure to those atom
B. Important only in therapeutic radiology
C. Random in nature, and therefore the effects of such interactions cannot be predicted with certainty
D. Unimportant in diagnostic radiology, making radiation protection unnecessary

C. Random in nature, and therefore the effects of such interactions cannot be predicted with certainty

Effective measures employed by radiation workers to safe guard patients, personnel, and the general public from unnessary exposure to ionizing radiation defines:

A. Diagnostic efficacy
B. Optimization
C. Radiation protection
D. The concept of equivalent dose (EqD)

C. Radiation protection

Which of the following was used as the first measure of exposure for ionizing radiation?

A. Roentgen
B. Skin erythema
C. Sievert
D. Rad

B. Skin erythema

A radiation weighting factor (WR) has been established for each of the following ionizing radiations: x-rays (WR=1), fast neutrons (WR=20), and alpha particles (WR=20). What is the total equivalent dose (EqD) in sieverts for a person who has received the following exposures: 0.5 Gy of x-rays, 0.1 Gy of fast neutrons, and 0.6 Gy of alpha particles?

A. 1.45 Sv
B. 3 Sv
C. 12 Sv
D. 14.5 Sv

D. 14.5 Sv

Which of the following is the unit of collective effective dose (ColEfD)?

A. Coulombs per kilogram-sievert
B. Gray-sievert
C. Person-sievert
D. Rad-sievert

C. Person-sievert

The concept of tissue weighting factor (WT) is used to do which of the following?

A. Account for the risk to the entire organism brought on by irradiation of individual tissues and organs
B. Eliminate the need for determining effective dose
C. Measure absorbed dose from all different types of ionizing radiations
D. Modify the radiation weighting factor for different types of ionizing radiation

A. Account for the risk to the entire organism brought on by irradiation of individual tissues and organs

If the absorbed dose is stated in rad, gray may be determined by performing which of the following operations?

A. Adding 100
B. Dividing by 100
C. Multiplying by 100
D. Substracting 100

B. Dividing by 100

What does the traditional radiation unit, the roentgen, measure?

A. Equivalent dose
B. Absorbed dose in biologic tissue
C. Radiation exposure in air only 100%
D. Speed at which x-ray photons travel

C. Radiation exposure in air only

The radiation weighting factor for protons is 2, and the tissue weighting factor for the gonads is 0.20. If the gonads receive an absorbed dose of 10 Gy from exposure to protons, what is the effective dose (EfD) in sievert?

A. 4 Sv
B. 2 Sv
C. 20 Sv 100 Sv
D. 100 Sv

A. 4 Sv

The radiation weighting factor for x-rays is 1, and the tissue weighting factor for the liver is 0.05. If the liver receives an absorbed dose of 150 Gy from exposure to x-rays, what is the effective dose (EfD) in sievert?

A. 3,000 Sv
B. 150.05 Sv
C. 15 Sv
D. 7.5 Sv

B. 150.05 Sv

If 100 people received an average dose of .7 Sv (70 rem), what is the collective effective dose?

A. 17.5 person-sieverts (1,750 man-rem)
B. 35 person-sieverts (3,500 man-rem)
C. 70 person-sieverts (7,000 man-rem)
D. 285 person-sieverts (28,500 man-rem)

C. 70 person-sieverts (7,000 man-rem)

If 300 people received an average dose of .35 Sv (5 rem), what is the collective effective dose?

A. 52.5 person-sieverts (5,250 man-rem)
B. 105 person-sieverts (10,500 man-rem)
C. 210 person-sieverts (21,000 man-rem)
D. 285 person-sieverts (28,500 man-rem)

B. 105 person-sieverts (10,500 man-rem)

A patient may elect to assume the relatively small risk of exposure to ionizing radiation to obtain essential diagnostic medical information when:

1. Illness occurs
2. Injury occurs
3. A specific imaging procedure for health screening purposes is prudent

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

D. 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following is determined by dividing the number of rad by 100?

A. Number of coulombs per kilogram
B. Number of ergs per gram
C. Number of gray
D. Number of sievert

C. Number of gray

If the absorbed dose equivalent is stated in sievert, the number of rem may be translated (converted) simply by:

A. Adding 100
B. Dividing by 100
C. Multiplying by 100
D. Subtracting 100

C. Multiplying by 100

Determine the total dose equivalent (DE) in sievert for a person who has received the following exposures of radiation: 37 rad x-rays, Q=1; 28 rad thermal (slow) neutrons, Q=5; and 10 rad fast neutrons, Q=20.

A. 3.77 sievert
B. 37.7 sievert
C. 377 sievert
D. 3,770 sievert
E. 37,700 sievert

A. 3.77 sievert

Determine the total dose equivalent (DE) in rem for a person who has received the following exposures of radiation: 29 rad beta particles, Q=1; 18 rad fast neutrons, Q=20; and 25 rad low energy protons, Q=20.

A. 8.89 rem
B. 88.9 rem
C. 889 rem
D. 8,890 rem
E. 88,900 rem

C. 889 rem

A radiographer has received an absorbed dose equivalent of 7.8 sievert during multiple x-ray examinations. This dose may be stated in rem. How many rem did the Radiographer receive?

A. 7.8 rem
B. 78 rem
C. 780 rem
D. 7,800 rem
E. 78,000 rem

C. 780 rem

A patient has received an absorbed dose of 80 rad from multiple x-ray examinations. This dose may be stated in Gray (Gy). How many Gray did the patient receive?

A. 8,000 Gy
B. 800 Gy
C. 80 Gy
D. 8.0 Gy
E. .80 Gy

E. .80 Gy

Which of the following factors may be multiplied to determine the dose equivalent (DE)?

A. Rad x Q
B. Rem x R
C. Gy x Q
D. A and Conly

D. A and C only

A radiation weighting factor (WR) has been established for each of the following ionizing radiations: x-rays (WR=1), protons (WR=2), and alpha particles (WR=20). What is the total equivalent dose (EqD) in rem for a person who has received the following exposures: 20 rad of x-rays, 7 rad of fast neutrons, and 30 rad of alpha particles?

A. 634 rem
B. 317 rem
C. 57 rem
D. 6.34 rem

A. 634 rem

Which of the following increases radiation exposure for both the patient and the radiographer?

A. Production of optimal quality images with the first exposure
B. Use of appropriate radiation protection procedures
C. Repeated radiographic exposures as a result of technical error or carelessness
D. Limited radiographic examination, as ordered by the radiologist

C. Repeated radiographic exposures as a result of technical error or carelessness

To implement an effective radiation safety program in a facility that provides imaging services, the employer must provide all of the following except:

A. An appropriate environment in which to execute an ALARA program and the necessary resources to support the program
B. X-ray equipment that can produce only very low kilovoltage and very high milliamperage
C. A written policy that describes the ALARA program and identifies management's commitment to keeping all radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable
D. Periodic exposure audits to determine ways to lower radiation exposure in the workplace

B. X-ray equipment that can produce only very low kilovoltage and very high milliamperage

Which of the following is a method that can be used to answer patient questions about the amount of radiation received from a radiographic procedure?

A. ALARA concept
B. BERT
C. BRET
D. EPA

B. BERT

According to NCRP Report No. 160, which reflects usage patterns through 2006, radon and thoron account for what percent of natural background radiation?

A. 15%
B. 25%
C. 37%
D. 55%

C. 37%

Occupational and nonoccupational doses will remain well below maximum allowable levels when:

A. Radiographers and radiologists keep exposure as low as reasonably achievable
B. Referring physcians stop ordering imaging procedures
C. Orders for imaging procedures are determined only by medical insurance companies
D. Patients assume sole responsibility for ordering their imaging procedures

A. Radiographers and radiologists keep exposure as low as reasonably achievable

As of 1987, manmade radiation contributed what amount of mSv (mrem) to the annual exposure of the U.S. population?

A. 0.3 (30)
B. 0.65 (65)
C. 1.2 (120)
D. 3.6 (360)

B. 0.65 (65)

What do airport surveillance systems; ionization-type smoke detectors; older, luminous dial time-pieces; nuclear power plants; and false teeth made of porcelain have in common?

A. They are all sources of natural background radiation
B. They each contribute 0.05 mSv (5 mrem) per year to the equivalent dose received by the global population
C. They are not sources of ionizing radiation
D. They are all sources of manmade radiation

D. They are all sources of manmade radiation

From which of the following sources do human beings receive the largest dose of ionizing radiation?

A. Radioactive fallout from atomic weapons testing
B. Medical radiation procedures
C. Cosmic rays
D. Area around a nuclear reactor

B. Medical radiation procedures

As of 1987, medical radiation exposure from the use of diagnostic x-ray machines and radiopharmaceuticals collectively accounted for approximately what amount of the average annual individual effective dose of ionizing radiation?

A. 0.25 mSv (25 mrem)
B. 0.54 mSv (54 mrem)
C. 0.78 mSv (78 mrem)
D. 0.92 mSv (92 mrem)

B. 0.54 mSv (54 mrem)

Which of the following is a radiaiton quantity used for radiation protection purposes that attempts to numerically specify the differences in biologic harm that is produced by different types of radiation?

A. Absorbed dose
B. Background equivalent radiation time
C. Equivalent dose
D. Exposure

C. Equivalent dose

Any radiation exposure that does not benefit a person in terms of diagnostic information obtained for the clinical management of medical needs or that does not enhance the quality of a radiologic examination is called:

A. Artificial radiation
B. Enhanced natural background radiation
C. Terrestrial radiation
D. Unnecessary radiation

D. Unnecessary radiation

The amount of radiation a patient receives may be indicated in terms of:

1. Entrance skin exposure 2. Bone marrow dose 3. Gonadal dose

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

D. 1, 2, and 3

When an imaging procedure is justified in terms of medical necessity, diagnostic efficacy is achieved when optimal-quality images, revealing the presence of absence of disease, are obtained with:

A. Maximal radiation exposure
B. Minimal radiation exposure
C. Scattered radiation exposure
D. Secondary radiation exposure

B. Minimal radiation exposure

The term optimization for radiation protection (ORP) is synonymous with the term:

A. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
B. Background equivalent radiation time (BERT)
C. Equivalent dose (EqD)
D. Diagnostic efficacy (DE)

A. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

Ultraviolet radiation below 10 eV, visible light, infrared rays, microwaves, and radio waves are considered to be nonionizing because they:

A. Have sufficient kinetic energy to eject electrons from atoms
B. Do not have sufficient kinetic energy to eject electrons from atoms
C. Have sufficient potential energy to eject electrons from atoms
D. Do not have sufficient potential energy to eject electrons from atoms

B. Do not have sufficient kinetic energy to eject electrons from atoms

Which of the following is a natrually occurring process by which instability of the nucleus is relieved through various types of nuclear spontaneous emissions?

A. Electromagnetic radiaiton
B. Electromagnetic ionization
C. Radioactive decay
D. Radioactive fallout

C. Radioactive decay

Effective radiation protection measures take into consideration:

1. Both human and environmental physical determinants
2. Technical elements
3. Procedural factors

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

D. 1, 2, and 3

Medical radiaiton procedures account for:

A. The largest dose of ionizing radiation received by human beings
B. The second largest dose of ionizing radiation received by human beings
C. The smallest dose of ionizing radiation received by human beings
D. Negligible doses of ionizing radiation received by human beings

A. The largest dose of ionizing radiation received by human beings

Which of the following commonly used building materials contain(s) radon?

A. Bricks
B. Concrete
C. Gypsum wallboard
D. All of the above

D. All of the above

The most effective tool(s) for diagnosing breast cancer continue to be:

A. PA and lateral chest x-ray examination
B. Clinical breast self-examination
C. Clinical breast examination by a physician
D. Mammography

D. Mammography

Repetition of a radiographic exposure because of poor patient positioning results in:

A. No significant change in total radiation exposure to the patient or the radiographer
B. A slight decrease in total radiation exposure to the patient or the radiographer
C. An increase in total radiation exposure to the patient or the radiographer
D. A significant decrease in total radiation exposure to the patient or the radiographer

C. An increase in total radiation exposure to the patient or the radiographer

The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of EqD.

A. True
B. False

A. True

Radio waves, microwaves, visible light, and x-rays are forms of electromagnetic waves.

A. True
B. False

A. True

Most radiation-induced cancers have a latent period of 15 years or longer.

A. True
B. False

A. True

Which of the following are natural sources of ionizing radiation?

A. Medical x-radiation and cosmic radiation
B. Radioactive elements in the crust of the earth and in the human body
C. Radioactive elements in the human body and a diagnostic x-ray machine
D. Radioactive fallout and environs of atomic energy plants

B. Radioactive elements in the crust of the earth and in the human body

Sources of ionizing radiation may be natural or manmade.

A. True
B. False

A. True

Wavelength is the physical distance between successive maximum values of electric and magnetic fields.

A. True
B. False

A. True

Diagnostic efficacy is a vital part of radiaiton protection in the healing arts.

A. True
B. False

A. True

When radiographers use their intelligence and knowledge to answer a patient's questions about the risk of radiation exposure honestly, they can do much to alleviate the patient's apprehension and fears during a routine radiologic examination.

A. True
B. False

A. True

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers radon to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States.

A. True
B. False

A. True

Ionizing radiation has both a beneficial and a destructive potential.

A. True
B. False

A. True

When a technical exposure factor of 100 kVp is selected, whcih of the following occurs?

A. The energy of the highest energy photon in the x-ray beam is 33 keV
B. The electrons are accelerated from the cathode to the anode with an energy of 33 keV
C. The energy of the average photon in the x-ray beam is about 100 keV
D. The energy of the average photon in the x-ray beam is about 33 keV

D. The energy of the average photon in the x-ray beam is about 33 keV

The passage of x-ray photons through a patient without interaction is called:

A. Absorption
B. Attenuation
C. Scattering
D. Direct transmission

D. Direct transmission

In which of the following x-ray interactions with matter is the energy of the incident photon completely absorbed?

A. Compton
B. Photoelectric
C. Incoherent
D. Rayleigh

B. Photoelectric

What is the result of coherent scattering?

A. Usually just a small angle change in the direction of the incident photon
B. Transfer of all energy of the incident x-ray photon to the atoms of the irradiated object
C. Production of a negatron and a positron
D. Transfer of only some of the energy of the incident x-ray photon to the atoms of the irradiated object

A. Usually just a small angle change in the direction of the incident photon

An equivalent dose as low as 0.25 Sv (25 rem) delivered to the whole body may cause which of the following within a few days?

A. An increase in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
B. A decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
C. A drop immediately to zero in the lymphocyte count
D. A large increase in the number of platelets

B. A decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood

A technical exposure factor of 100 kVp means that the electrons bombarding the anode of the x-ray tube have a maximum energy of:

A. 1000 electron volts (eV), or 1 keV
B. 10,000 electron volts (eV), or 10 keV
C. 100,000 electron volts (eV), or 100 keV
D. 1,000,000 electron volts (eV), or 1,000 keV

C. 100,000 electron volts (eV), or 100 keV

A Compton-scattered electron:

A. Annihilates another electro
B. Is absorbed within a few microns of the site of the original Compton interaction
C. Causes pair production
D. Engages in the process of photodisintegration

B. Is absorbed within a few microns of the site of the original Compton interaction

Most scattered radiation produced during radiographic procedures is the direct result of which of the following?

A. Photoelectric absorption
B. Nuclear decay
C. Image-formation electrons
D. Compton interactions

D. Compton interactions

A reduction in the number of primary photons in the x-ray beam through absorption and scatter as the beam passes through the patient in its path defines:

A. Annihilation
B. Attenuation
C. Photodisintegration
D. Radiographic fog

B. Attenuation

Before interacting with matter, an incoming x-ray photon may be referred to as which of the following?

A. Attenuated photon
B. Primary photon
C. Ionized photon
D. Scattered photon

B. Primary photon

Within the energy range of diagnostic radiology that includes mammography (23 to 150 kVp), when kVp is decreased, the patient dose:

A. Decreases
B. Increases
C. Remains the same
D. Doubles

B. Increases

Which of the following statements best describes mass density?

A. It is the number of electrons per gram of tissue
B. It is the same as radiographic density
C. It relates the way the effective atomic number of biologic tissues influences absorption
D. It is measured in grams per cubic centimeter

D. It is measured in grams per cubic centimeter

Of the following interactions between x-radiation amd matter, which does not occur in the range of diagnostic radiology?

1. Photoelectric absorption 2. Pair production 3. Photodisintegration

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

C. 2 and 3 only

For a diagnostic radiologic examination, the selection of technical exposure factors using an optimal kVp and mAs combination:

A. Produces an x-ray image of acceptable quality but increases patient dose
B. Produces an x-ray image of acceptable quality while minimizing patient dose
C. Produces an x-ray image of acceptable quality without affecting patient dose
D. Affects neither the quality of the completed radiographic image nor patient dose

B. Produces an x-ray image of acceptable quality while minimizing patient dose

The quality, or penetrating power, of an x-ray beam is controlled by:

A. The absorption characteristics of the patient being radiographed
B. Fluorescent yield
C. mAs
D. kVp

D. kVp

The degree to which the diagnostic study accurately reveals the presence or absence of disease in the patient defines which of the following terms?

A. Radiation protection
B. Radiographic pathology
C. Effective diagnosis
D. Diagnostic efficacy

D. Diagnostic efficacy

Small-angle scatter:


A. Degrades the appearance of a completed radiographic image by blurring the sharp outlines of dense objects
B. Enhances the appearance of a completed radiographic image by clearly delineating the sharp outlines of dense objects
C. Affects the appearance of a completed radiographic image only when contrast medium is used for visualization of a tissue or structure
D. Occurs only in therapeutic radiologic damage

A. Degrades the appearance of a completed radiographic image by blurring the sharp outlines of dense objects

Which of the following terms are synonymous?

1. Coherent scattering 2. Classical scattering 3. Unmodified scattering

A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. !, 2, and 3

D. !, 2, and 3

Direct transmission means that x-ray photons:

A. Are absorbed in biologic tissue on interaction
B. Are scattered on interaction with biologic tissue
C. Pass through biologic tissue without interaction
D. Pass through biologic tissue with some interaction

C. Pass through biologic tissue without interaction

Which of the following interactions between x-radiation and matter does not occur within the range of diagnostic radiology?

A. Coherent scattering
B. Compton scattering
C. Photoelectric absorption
D. Pair production

D. Pair production

kVp controls:

A. Absorption characteristics of the body part being radiographed
B. Fluorescent yield
C. Random interaction of x-ray photons with the image receptor
D. Quality, or penetrating power, of the photons in the x-ray beam

D. Quality, or penetrating power, of the photons in the x-ray beam

The process most responsible for the contrast between bone and soft tissue in a diagnostic radiographic image is:

A. Coherent scattering
B. Compton scattering
C. Photoelectric absorption
D. Photodisintegration

C. Photoelectric absorption

The radiographer also benefits when patient dose is minimal because less radiation is scattered from the patient.


A. True
B. False

A. True

In the radiographic kilovoltage range, compact bone with a high calcium content by weight undergoes much more photoelectric absorption than an equal mass of soft tissue and air.


A. True
B. False

A. True

Compton scattering results in all-directional scatter.


A. True
B. False

A. True

For each radiographic procedure, an optimal kVp and mAs combination exists that minimizes the dose to the patient and produces an acceptable radiographic image


A. True
B. False

A. True

An effective radiation safety program requires a firm commitment to radiation safety by:

1. Facilities producing imaging services
2. Radiation workers
3. Patients


A. 1 and 2 only
B. 1 and 3 only
C. 2 and 3 only
D. 1, 2, and 3

A. 1 and 2 only

An incoming photon of 1 MeV interacts with an orbital electron causing ionization of the atom and a .9 MeV scattered photon. This describes an event called:

A. Pair production
B. Photoelectric absorption
C. Compton scattering
D. None of the above

C. Compton scattering

An incident x-ray photon of 37 keV strikes an electron with a 40 keV binding energy. A scattered photon results with 37 keV energy. This describes:


A. Compton event
B. Brems event
C. Photoelectric event
D. Coherent event

D. Coherent event

A 70 keV x-ray photon strikes an inner shell electron, and all of the photon energy is transferred to the electron. This describes:

A. Coherent scattering
B. Compton scattering
C. Photoelectric effect
D. Photodisintegration

C. Photoelectric effect

An interaction between high-energy x-ray photons, above 10 MeV, and the nucleus of a target atom with the emission of a neutron or other nuclear particles is called:


A. Photodisintegration
B. Photoelectric effect
C. Pair production

A. Photodisintegration

The probability of occurance of Compton interactions decreases as x-ray photon energy (kVp):

A. Remains constant
B. Increases
C. Fluctuates from AC to DC
D. Decreases

B. Increases

When a photon of 1.022 MeV interacts with the nuclear force field (nucleus) of an atom, its energy is changed or transformed into two electrons. What are the names of these two electrons?

A. Idnetical scatter electrons
B. Rayleigh and Thompson electrons
C. Positron and negatron electrons
D. Recoil electrons
E. Laird and Narvaez electrons

C. Positron and negatron electrons

The probability of occurance of photoelectric absorption ________ markedly as the atomic number of the irradiated material ________.

A. Increases / decreases
B. Decreases / increases
C. Increases / increasess
D. Remains constant / decreases

C. Increases / increasess

Which of the following is the SI unit of radiation exposure?

A. C/kg
B. Gy
C. R
D. Sv

A. C/kg

Which of the following terms describes the amount of energy per unit mass transferred from an x-ray beam to an object in its path such as the human body?

A. SI
B. Exposure
C. Equivalent dose
D. Absorbed dose

D. Absorbed dose

To determine D, the amount of energy absorbed by the irradiatied object must be measured by:

A. Calculating EqD
B. Calculating the entrance skin exposure of the object
C. Determining the amount of energy deposited per kilogram of the irradiated object
D. Determining the amount of ionization in a specific volume of dry air at atmospheric pressure

C. Determining the amount of energy deposited per kilogram of the irradiated object

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