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This is exam review #1 for Mr. Bordley's World Geography class.

geography

the study of the world, its people, and the landscapes they create

landscape

all the human and physical features of a place that make it unique

social science

a field that studies people and the relationships among them

region

a part of the world that has one or more common features that distinguish it from surronding areas

map

a flat drawing that shows all or part of the Earth's surface

globe

a spherical, or ball-shaped model of the entire planet

cartography

the science of making maps

tropics

regions close to the equator

glaciers

large areas of slow-moving ice

groundwater

water found below Earth's surface

water vapor

water as an invisible gas in the air

landforms

shapes on the planet's surface

continents

large landmasses

plate tectonics

a theory that suggests that Earth's surface is divided into a dozen or so slow-moving plates, or pieces of the Earth's crust

weathering

the process by which rock is broken down into smaller pieces

erosion

the movement of sediment from one location to another

ocean currents

large streams of surface water

doldrums

a belt of calms and light baffling winds north of the equator between the northern and southern trade winds in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

Tropical climate

a climate very close to the equator, warm, humid, lots of rain, lots of rain forest, Amazon, Congo, southern Mexico, Miami

steppes

semidry grasslands or praries

permafrost

permanently frozen layers of soil

Limits on Life

temperature, rainfall, and soil condition; determines where plants and animals can live

humus

decayed plant or animal matter

renewable resource

a resource that Earth replaces naturally

deforestation

the clearing of trees

culture

the set of beliefs, values, and practices that a group of people has in common

culture trait

an activity or behavior in which people often take part

ethnic group

a group of people who share a common culture and ancestry

cultural diversity

the state of having a variety of cultures in the same area

cultral diffusion

the spread of culture traitsfrom one region to another

birth rate

the annual number of births per 1,000 people

death rate

the annual number of deaths per 1,000 people

migration

the process of moving from one place to live in another

Appalachian Mountains

an old, low mountain range located in the eastern US with smooth peaks due to erosion

Rocky Mountains

the newest, highest, and biggest mountain range in North America with jagged peaks

continental divide

an area of high ground that divides the flow of rivers towards opposite ends of a continent

megalopolis

a string of large cities that have grown together

St. Lawrence River

an important river that runs through Canada and links the Great Lakes and the Gulf of St. Lawrence

Niagara Falls

a big and important waterfall that the US and Canada shares; between Ontario and New York

pulp

softened wood fibers

Ottawa

the capital of Canada

Washington, DC

the capital of the US

Canadian Shield

a region of rocky uplands, lakes, and swamps that covers about half of Canada

regionalism

the strong connection that people feel towards their region in which they live

maritime

on or near the sea

meteorology

the study of weather and what causes it

weather

the short-term changes in the air for a given place or time

climate

a region's average weather conditions over a long period of time

front

the place where two air masses of different temperature or moisture content meet

precipitation

water that falls to Earth's surface as rain, snow, sleet, or hail

monsoons

seasonal winds that bring either dry or moist air

rain shadow

when one side of a mountain gets a lot of wind and air, making it lush and green, while the other side gets little wind and rain, making it brown and dry

fossil fuels

nonrenewable resources that formed the remains of ancient plants and animals, like oil, natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy

nonrenewable resources

resources that cannot be replaced

topography

the configuration of a surface and the relations among its man-made and natural features

Five Themes of Geography

Place, Location, Movement, Human-Environment Interaction, and Regions

physical geography

the study of the world's physical features; its landforms, bodies of water, climates, soils, and plants

human geography

the study of the world's people, communities, and landscapes

primary industry

an industry that uses natural resources to make money

secondary industry

an industry that uses raw materials to produce or manufacture something new

tertiary industry

an industry that provides services to people and businesses and sells things

quanternary industry

an industry that processes and distributes information

traditional economy

a system in which people grow their own food and make their own goods; buying and bartering is the way to trade

private ownership

property/resources that individuals own/control

supply and demand

an economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it (demand) and depending on how much of the good is available (supply)

natural resource

any material in nature that people use and value

renewable resources

resources that Earth replaces naturally; examples are solar energy, wind energy, and hydroelectric power

Equator

an imaginary line that runs around the globe halfway between the North and South Poles

Desert climate

a hot and dry climate with less than 10 inches per year and little vegetation

North Pole

the northernmost point on the Earth

Alfred Wegener

scientist who came up with the theory of continental drift and tectonic plates

prime minister

like the US's president; oversees the Parliament and appoints senators

premier

like the governor of a US state

John F. Kennedy

the 35th US president who served during the Cold War and urged young Americans to serve their country in the 3rd world to help win the Cold War

Marine West Coast climate

a climate with mild summers and cool, rainy winters; cloudy, strong ocean influence, Seattle, London, Vancouver

Mediterranean climate

a climate with dry, sunny, warm summers and mild, wetter winters; vacation-like weather, Rome, Greece, California

Humid Subtropical climate

a climate with hot, humid summers and mild, wetter winters; rain year-round, Washington, DC, New Orleans, Hong Kong, Atlanta

Humid Continental climate

a climate with long, cold winters and short, warm summers; mixed forest, New York City, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Detroit

Highland climate

wide ranges of temperature and precipitation; ranges from forest to tundra; high regions; cenral Asia, western South America

Subarctic climate

long, cold winters and short, warm summers; mostly very cold, little precipitation, most of Canada, most of Russia, most of Alaska

temperate

synonym for moderate, medium, calm, or not extreme

globalization

the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade; improved communication+improved transportation

popular culture

culture traits that are well known and widely accepted; basketball, Apple, Facebook

United Nations

an organization of the world's countries that promotes peace and security around the globe (full name)

humanitarian aid

assistance to people in distress

Peace Corps

a civilian organization sponsored by the US government that helps people in 3rd world countries

NGO

an organization that helps people and is not sponsored by the government (initials)

1st world country

a country with a strong economy and a high quality of life

3rd world country

a country with a less productive economy and a lower quality of life

democracy

a form of government in which the people elect leaders and rule by majority

market economy

a system based on private ownership, free trade, and competition; also called capitalism

communism

a political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life

command economy

a system in which the central government makes all economic decisions

monarchy

a type of government ruled directly by a king, queen, or royal family

dictatorship

a type of government in which a single, powerful ruler has total control

3 T's

trade, travel, transportation

important waterways

Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, Mississippi River, Chesapeake Bay, Ohio River, Hudson Strait

big ports in the US and Canada

Miami, Chicago, Baltimore, Boston, New York City, Vancouver, Montreal

imports

goods bought and brought to a country

exports

goods made in a country used to trade with other countries

hydrology

the study of water on Earth

salt water

water with salt

fresh water

water without salt

surface water

water that is found in Earth's streams, rivers, and lakes

flood

when a certain place is overfull with water; often caused by too much precipitation

water cycle

the movement of water from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back; condensation->precipitation->runoff->evaporation

water erosion

when water carves or changes sediment; an example of it is the Grand Canyon

latitude

imaginary lines that measure how north or south of the equator a location is

longitude

imaginary lines that measure how east or west of the Prime Meridian a location is

absolute location

a specific description of a place, usually using latitude and longitude or an address

relative location

a general description of where a place is, usually using directions

parallels

lines of latitude

degrees

the measurement for lines of latitude and longitude

Prime Meridian

an imaginary line that runs through Greenwich, England and is 0° longitude; like the equator for longitude

legend

key to a map

scale

the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it on a map; usually on the legend

solar energy

energy from the sun

rotation

one complete spin of Earth on its axis

revolution

one trip around the Sun (for the Earth)

Earth's tilt

23.5°, the reason we have seasons

rain forests

forests in the tropics that receive a high amount of rain per year and have plants and animals that can withstand its humidity

evergreen forests

forests with tall, Chirstmas-like trees that stays green all year and don't lose their leaves

savannas

areas of tall grasses and scattered trees and shrubs

coniferous forests

forests with trees that grow cones instead of leaves

deciduous forests

forests with trees that lose their leaves

environment

surrondings

ecosystem

a group of plants and animals that depend on each other for survival and the environment in which they live

food chain

what symbolizes who eats who in an ecosystem

habitat

the place where a plant or animal lives

extinct

to die out

crop rotation

rotating crops in a cycle of at least 3 fields so that the nutrients in the soil are not overused

reforestation

planting trees to replace lost forestland

desertification

the spread of desertlike conditions

Grand Banks

a large fishing ground off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrabor

the Heartland

the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, where more than half of Canada's population lives, many French people live there, big cties like Ottawa, Toronto, and Montreal

Great Lakes

a group of five lakes in the Northeast and Midwest; largest group of freshwater lakes in the world

Mississippi River

the longest river in North America, runs through Midwest and South, provides rich minerals for Interior Plains

Interior Plains

a region stretching from the Appalachian Mountains to the Great Plains, great farmland, farmland caused by Miss. River

population

the total number of people in a given area

population density

a measure of the number of people living in a given area

natural increase

birth rate-death rate

demographics

statistics related to population

assimilation

the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another

containment

what the Americans wanted to do with communism; keep within its borders

domino theory

a theory that says if one region falls under the influence of something, then other nieghboring regions will soon follow

nationalism

the strong connection that people feel towards the country in which they live

subsidence living

living and thinking about getting through the day or week; not thinking about long-term things

nomadic people

people who don't live in one place for a long time, people who move around a lot

free trade

unrestricted trade; no limits

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