Psychology Ch. 11- Social Influence

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Social Influence

Conformity

is a change in a person's behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard.

Conformity

when a person comes to college and starts to drink alcohol heavily at parties, even though he or she might have never been a drinker before. EXAMPLE OF?

Conformity

involved when we obey the rules and regulations that allow society to run smoothly.

Conformity

can also be a powerful way to increase group cohesion. Even something as simple as marching in step together or singing a song with a group can lead to enhanced cooperation among group members

informational social influence and normative social influence

Two main factors have been identified as contributing to conformity......

informational social influence

refers to the influence other people have on us because we want to be right.

informational social influence

The social group can provide us with information that we did not know, or may help us see things in ways that had not occurred to us. As a result, we may conform because we have come to agree with the group example of???

how confident we are in our own independent judgment and how well informed we perceive the group to be.

The tendency to conform based on informational social influence depends especially on two factors.......

informational social influence

if you know little about computers and three of your acquaintances who are IT geeks tell you not to buy a particular brand of computer, you are likely to conform to their recommendation. EXAMPLE OF?

normative social influence

is the influence others have on us because we want them to like us.

normative social influence

Whether the group is an inner-city gang or members of a profession such as medicine or law, if a particular group is important to us, we might adopt a clothing style that people in the group wear or use the same slang words, and we might assume a certain set of attitudes that characterizes the group's members EXAMPLE OF???

Obedience

is behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority.

Obedience

in conformity, people change their thinking or behavior so that it will be more like that of others, while in_______, there is an explicit demand to comply

Deindividuation

occurs when being part of a group reduces personal identity and erodes the sense of personal responsibility

Deindividuation

are visible in the wild street revelry that erupts after a team's victory in the World Series or Super Bowl, as well as in mass civic observances such as big-city Fourth of July celebrations.

Social Contagion

The effects of others on our behavior can take the form of ....

Social Contagion

imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas

Social Contagion

can be observed in such varied phenomena as social fads, the popularity of dog breeds, the spread of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and drinking among adolescents, and symptoms of eating disorders among young women

Social facilitation

occurs when an individual's performance improves because of the presence of others

Social Loafing

refers to each person's tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort.

Social Loafing

commonly occurs when a group of students is assigned a class project, and it is one reason that some students intensely dislike group assignments.

risky shift

is the tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members.

group polarization effect

is the solidification and further strengthening of an individual's position as a consequence of a group discussion.

group polarization effect

may occur because, during the discussion, people hear new, more persuasive arguments that strengthen their original position.

Groupthink

refers to the impaired group decision making that occurs when making the right decision is less important than maintaining group harmony.

Conformity

is described as a person's attempt to behave so as to coincide more closely with a group standard.

Solomon Asch's Conformity Experiment

In this experiment, a participant was brought into a room with five other people and shown two cards, one with a single vertical line on it and the other with three vertical lines of varying lengths. The participants were asked to identify which of the lines on the second card was the same length as the line on the first card.

Solomon Asch's Conformity Experiment

The other five people in the room were confederates, meaning that they were in on the experiment, but the volunteer participant did not know this. The confederates chose a line that was obviously wrong. The participant had the dilemma of either agreeing with everyone else or stating the obviously correct answer. Asch found that the participants agreed with the confederates 35 percent of the time in giving the wrong answer.

informational social influence

refers to the influence that other people have on individuals because the individual wants to be right.

normative social influence

refers to the influence that others have on an individual because the individual wants others to like them or approve of them.

Obedience

is a behavior that complies with explicit demands made by the individual in authority.

Stanley Milgrim's classic experiment

volunteer participants were asked to deliver dangerous, painful electric shocks to other participants. The other participants were confederates, but the volunteer participants did not know this. Almost two-thirds of the volunteer participants went the whole way, up to delivering 450 volts of electric shocks to the other confederate participants.

Stanley Milgrim's classic experiment

Disobedience to the instructor's authority was more common, however, when the participants could see other participants disobey. And when the authority figure was not perceived to be legitimate and was not close by, and when the other participant, the confederate, was made to seem more human, disobedience increased.

Exerting Personal control

Not everyone goes along with social influence. A relationship with the social world is reciprocal.

Deindividuation

occurs when being part of a group reduces one's personal identity and erodes one's sense of personal responsibility.

deindividuation

One explanation for the existence of _____ is that groups give individuals anonymity. An individual may do something in a group that he or she would never do when alone.

Social contagion

is imitative behavior that involves the spreading of behavior, emotions, and ideas.

Group Performance

Research has shown that performance is better when there is more than one individual.

Social facilitation

occurs when an individual's performance improves because of the presence of others. The presence of others arouses individuals, which in produces energy.

social loafing

occurs when an individual exerts less effort when in a group, because the individual feels less accountable for his or her own individual effort.

social loafing

When there is _____, there is lower group performance. With a larger group, the individual feels it possible to loaf without detection by others in the group.

risky shift

occurs when there is a tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members.

Group polarization

is the solidification and further strengthening of a position as a consequence of a group discussion.

Groupthink

refers to a group's impaired decision making and avoidance of realistic appraisal in order to maintain group harmony.

Groupthink

Instead of rocking the boat, in _____the group's members place the highest value on conformity and unanimity.

Groupthink

Some recent examples of _____k are the Challenger space crisis and the days leading up to the war in Iraq.

Majority and Minority Influence

Most groups make a decision by voting, and usually the majority wins. The minority must exert its pressure through informational pressure. If the minority makes its point consistently and confidently, the majority is more likely to listen.

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