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use dry measuring cup, then level it as best you can

correctly measure chocolate chips

use a liquid/dry measuring cup/spoon, pack if dry, then level

correctly measure butter

use dry measuring cup/spoon, pack, then level

correctly measure brown sugar

use dry measuring cup/spoon, then level

correctly measure flour

use liquid measuring cup/spoon, eye level

correctly measure milk

use dry measuring cup/spoon, level

correctly measure salt

use liquid measuring spoon, eye level

correctly measure syrup

use dry measuring spoon, pack, then level

correctly measure peanut butter

5T, 1t

1/3=__T+__t

4

1gal=__qt

16

1gal=__c

16

1lb=__oz

marinate

to soak in an acid-oil mixture

blanch

to put a food in boiling water, then into cold water

cube

to cut into small squares

pare

to remove the outer covering

reduce

to cook a liquid until some of the moisture evaporates and the liquid becomes more concentrated

score

to make very thin, straight cuts on the surface of food

mince

to cut food into the smallest possible pieces

scald

to heat a liquid to the simmering point

knead

towork dough with the hands

rehydrate

to soak or cook dried food in order to replace the water lost

reconstitute

to add water to a concentrated food to return in to its natural state

flake

to break up into small pieces with a fork

dredge

to roll, or sprinkle,with a dry ingredient

yield

the # of servings or pieces that will result from a recipe

1/4t, 1/2t, 1t, 1T

sizes of measuring spoons

1/4c, 1/3c, 1/2c, 1c,

sizes of dry measuring cups

double boiler

used for heating foods that burn easily over direct heat

colander

used for draining liquid form food

rubber scraper

used for removing food from spoons, sides of bowls, and pans

ladle

used for diping liquids such as soup or stew from a pan to a bowl or cup

pastry blender

used for cutting shortening into dry pastry ingredients

whisk

used for beating and blending

strainer

used for removing unwanted parts, such as seeds

paring knife

used for cleaning and paring foods and cutting fruits and vegetables

straight-edge spatula

used for leveling off dry ingredients when measuring; spreading frosting on cakes

tongs

used for lifting and turning hot foods

baster

used for basting foods with liquid

grater

used for grating, shreding, or slicing vegetables and cheese

flour sifter

used for sifting and adding air to flour and other dry ingradients

bread knife

used for cutting bread or cake w/o crushing it

1

# of sheets baked at one time

on a wire/cooling rack

cooling cookies

in middle of the oven or the center rack

oven rack location for baking cookies

in air tight containers

storing cookies

12

average # baked on a sheet

bar cookie

textures vary from cake-like to chewy; baked in square or rectangular pans and then cut into bars, squares, or diamonds (type of dough: batter or soft)

drop cookie

made from soft dough that's dropped from a tsp onto cookie sheets

pressed cookie

made by pushing medium-stiff dough through a cookie press, which can create a variety of shapes

rolled cookie

made from stiff dough that's rolled out and cut with cookie cutters

refrigerator cookie

made by forming a soft dough into a long roll and refridgerating it; when it's chilled and firm the cookies are sliced and baked

molded/shaped cookie

formed by shaping dough by hand into balls; can be rolled in chopped nuts or other toppings before baking, or flattened w/ a fork or the bottom of a glass

bar, drop, refrigerator, molded/shaped

chocolate chip cookies

bar cookies

lemon squares

rolled

christmas cookies

molded/shaped

snickerdoodles

rolled

gingerbread men

pressed

spritz cookies

rolled, drop, molded/shaped, refrigerator

sugar cookies

thin enough to be poured, thick enough to be spooned

define batter

it's sticky but thick enough to be shaped with your hands

define dough

method that uses liquid fats

define muffin method

method that uses solid fats

define biscuit method

to work dough with the hands

define knead

baking powder, baking soda, eggs, air, and steam

ex. of quick bread leaveners

any type of biscuit

ex. of quick breads made from a soft dough

pancakes and waffels

ex. of quick breads made from a pour batter

muffins

ex. of quick breads made from a drop batter

over-mixing

cause of tunnels in muffins

AA (the best kind), A, and B

egg grades

yolk

cholesterol in egg parts

medium

egg cooking temperatures

cold or refrigerated temperature

best temp. to separate an egg

room temp.

best temp. to beat an egg

b/c of incorrect cooking or over cooking

cause of egg yolk discoloration

it only indicates the breed of the chicken

shell color indication

to make it more tender and fluffy

purpose of milk in scrambled eggs

emulsifier (holds the egg together) -ex. mayo; binder (holds things together) -ex. meatballs and meatloaf

functions and food examples of eggs

medium

egg sizes for recipes

to make them easier to peel

why hard cooked eggs are cooled in cold water

protein

egg nutrients

by weight per dozen

how egg sizes are determined

layer of water between the meringue and the pie filling

define weeping

baked egg

define shirred egg

beaten egg, add milk, seasoning, and stirr as you cook

define scrambled egg

an egg cooked in a little bit of oil

define fried egg

egg whites and other ingredients

egg substitutes

egg whites, sugar, and it's beaten stiffly

define meringue

beaten eggs with milk (it's folded in half when done)

define omelet

processed meat

meats which have had some treatment other than just cutting

mutton

meat from an older sheep

trichinosis

illness caused by tiny worms often found in pork

marbling

fat flecks throughout meat

collagen

a white, fairly thin connective tissue

elastin

a thick, yellowish-white connective tissue

cured

treated with ingredients such as salt, nitrates, nitrites, or sugar

prime

the top USDA meat grade

rare

cooked until the outside is cooked and crisp, but the insie is just slightly cooked

veal

meat from immature cattle

au jus

roast beef served in seasoned, natural meat drippings

extender

textured vegetable protein added to hamburgers to make more servings

lamb

meat from a sheep under 1 year of age

sausage

finely chopped, minced, or ground meat blended with seasonings and often stuffed into a casing

stir fry

method of cooking developed in the Orient in which thin slices of meat are fried quickly in a small amount of hot fat

pork

meat from young hogs

internal temperature

the amount of heat inside a piece of meat as it cooks

grinding/pounding

a mechanical method of tenderizing meat

braise

a moist-heat meat cooking method

muscle

meat is mostly this type of tissue

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