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Ch. 11 Practice Test

Social thinking, social influence, social relations

Social psychology is the study of ______.

social exchange theory

According to ______, social relationships involve an exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits.

sexual attraction

According to Ellen Berscheid's research, ______ is the most important ingredient of romantic love.

Romantic love

______ involves strong components of sexuality and infatuation, and is often predominant in the early part of a love relationship.

young and beautiful / financially stable

According to the evolutionary theory of attraction, men tend to seek mates who are ____ and women tend to seek mates who are ______.

Bill, his roommate

Tom has left home and is attending college in a city far away from home where he doesn't know anybody. According to the principle of proximity, Tom will be most likely to make friends with _____. - Bill, his roommate; John, who lives across campus; Michael who lives in the same dorm but 2 floors below; Stuart who lives 10 miles away in an off-campus apartment.

Explicit racism / Implicit racism

______ is reflected in a person's conscious and openly shared attitude, which might be measured using a questionnaire. _____ refers to attitudes that exist on a deeper, hidden level, thus they must be measured with a method that does not require awareness.

discrimination

In a recent study (M. Bertrand & S. Mullainathan, 2003), researchers sent 5,000 fictitious resumes to companies advertising in Chicago and Boston. Applicants with "black-sounding" names were 50 percent LESS likely to be called for an interview than those with "white-sounding" names. This unfair treatment based on the group to which someone belongs (or seems to belong) is called _____.

ethnocentrism

The assumption that ethnic outgroups are not only different, but that other groups are inferior to your group, is called _____.

tendency for people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone.

Social loafing refers to the _____.

decrease / increase

Ralph just started taking guitar lessons last week. Jimi has been playing guitar for almost 20 years. According to the concept of social faciliation, performing in front of an audience of strangers and friends tonight will likely ______ Ralph's performance and ______ Jimi's performance.

Deindividuation

______ refers to the loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension. It occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.

two-thirds

Approximately _____ of the participants in Milgram's obedience experiment administered the maximum 450-volt shock to the victim.

informational social influence

Rosalie was invited to a black-tie dinner at the Ritz Carlton. She's never been served a 10-course meal before so she's unfamiliar with the social etiquette regarding silverware selection. Since Rosalie is in a foreign environment, she gets through the night by watching others who appear to know what they are doing. For each course, she follows their selection of silverware. Rosalie is displaying ______.

Normative social influence

_____ is based on a person's desire to be accepted by the group.

About 35 percent of the participants

Approximately what percentage of participants in Solomon Asch's study conformed to the group's pressure to select the incorrect line?

They are more likely to engage in aggressive and delinquent behaviors.

Based on the information presented in your textbook, what is the most likely outcome experienced by children who frequently play violent video games?

Being personally attacked or insulted; Physical Pain, Heat

Which `factors INCREASES the likelihood of an aggressive response?

helping behavior

Diffusion of responsibility is most likely to influence _____.

when someone is witnessing an emergency and there are several other bystanders present

The bystander effect is most likely to occur ______.

the foot-in-the-door technique

A person on campus walks up to you and asks if you would be willing to wear a ribbon to show support for her cause. Though the ribbon is a bit unattractive, it is small so you agree to wear it. After agreeing to this request, the solicitor then asks you if you would be willing to make a donation of $15. This example best demonstrates the persuasion technique called _____.

the foot-in-the-door technique

According to _____, people who have first agreed to a small request tend to comply later with a larger request.

engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound, logical argument

Central route persuasion involves_____.

Look at your behavior

According to self-perception theory, if you're not sure how you feel about something, how can you find out?

cognitive dissonance reduction

Hugh bought a new calculator at Staples for $125. One week later, he saw an ad from Wal-Mart showing the same calculator on sale for $65. Hugh said to himself, "I'm glad I got my calculator at Staples; the ones at Wal-Mart are probably defective. I don't mind having paid more for mine." Hugh's statement reflects _____.

cognitive dissonance

When people try to confront Alfred about drinking too much alcohol, he replies, "Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I'll die having a good time." This statement, which is an example of self-justification, illustrates Alan's attempt to reduce _____.

She is a clumsy person.

You watch as another student stumbles and drops her books in the hall. According to the fundamental attribution error, how would you explain the student's behavior? -She must of tripped over something - She is a clumsy person - She couldn't help it; there were too many books to carry -She was trying to get out of someone else's way

he has an angry and volatile personality

You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error if you assumed that _____. - he has an angry and volatile personality -He just missed a putt - he was thrown off by the flash of a camera -He is in a tough situation

the self-serving bias

Whenever Claudia gets an A on her psychology exam, she believes it was due to the fact that she is an intelligent, hard-working student. However, when she receives a C on an exam, she attributes her behavior to the situation and thus blames the grade on her instructor's ineffective teaching style and poor choice of test questions. Claudia's behavior is an example of ____.

Face D morphed from 16 faces

According to research on the "average face is the attractive face," which of the following faces would be likely to receive the highest attractiveness ratings? -Face A: morphed from 2 faces -Face B: morphed from 4 faces -Face C morphed from 8 faces -Face D morphed from 16 faces

The self-fulfilling prophecy

A study by Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968) found that children who were labeled as "late bloomers" at the start of the school year showed larger IQ gains than other, non-labeled students, even though these particular children were chosen randomly. The children's teachers were informed about these labels but the students themselves were not. The results from this study demonstrate which concept?

There is little truth to the "beautiful is good stereotype." Attractive people do not really possess the positive characteristics of the stereotype.

Which of the following statements about research on the "beautiful is good" stereotype is FALSE? -Infants as young as 3 to 6 months of age prefer attractive faces over unattractive faces.-Attractive people are assumed to have a variety of positive characteristics, including being better adjusted, socially skilled, friendly, likeable, extraverted, and likely to achieve superior job performance.-There is little truth to the "beautiful is good stereotype." Attractive people do not really possess the positive characteristics of the stereotype. -The "beautiful is good stereotype" can influence how we treat others, as in the concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy.

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