Western Civ Final: Terms

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Nepotism

Putting relatives in positions of church power

Simony

Buying church office

Hocket

A single melody is shared between two voices such that alternately one voice sounds while the other rests

Isorhythmic

When a piece has the same rhythm throughout

Aria

A sung solo

Arioso

A miniature sung solo

Recitative

Half music, half speech, used in opera

Basso Continuo

A part played by a harpsichord or organ that doubles the bass part already

Ground Bass

A bass with a small, repeating motif

Iconography

The study of subject matter or symbolism in a piece

Humanism

Putting the emphasis on the individual, the body, and classical references

Sfumato

Smoky, a blending of colors with low contrast

Chiaroscuro

The use of light and dark, shadows

Forced Chiaroscuro

A high amount of contrast bringing the audience's eye to the most important part of the piece

Pyramidal Composition

When the focuses of the piece form an equilaterlal triangle

Orthogonals

Lines in scientific perspective that meet at one vanishing point

Medium

What materials are used in the piece

Patronage

Who paid for the piece

Grisaille

"Painted Architecture"

Putti

Cherubs; Baby Angels

Rustication

When the bricks themselves show through

Contrapossto

A natural position (unsymmetrical, dispersed weight)

Cadence

The end of a musical phrase, marked by a pause (i.e. a period)

Octave

An 8 note interval

Homophony

When two or more parts move together in harmony

Polyphony

When two or more parts are distinct and independent

Monophony

When one or more parts are together and on the same note

Composition

How forms are placed; the layout

Nave

Center isle of a church

Apse

Semi-circular area beyond the altar

Capital

The top of a column

Metope

The space in between small reliefs in a Doric building

Tuscan Order Column

A Roman version of an ionic column

Entasis

The bulge half way up a greek column that makes it appear straight

Pediment

A tympanum-like space on a greek temple

Tympanum

The space above an entryway, often sculpted in relief

Relief

A statue partially raised from a flat plane

Sculpture in the round

A sculpture meant to be viewed from all angles except below the base

Disguised Symbolism

When aspects of art hold hidden meanings (Common in the Northern Renaissance.)

Plainchant (Gregorian Chant)

Unaccompanied, monophonic music for voice

Reciting Tone

The Pitch on which the text is sung with the exception of small variations at the beginnings and ends of phrases

Antiphon

A musical genre where the piece is a response to a traditional plainchant piece.

Sequence

A series of short notes sung twice with some variation (A A' B B' C C'...)

Drone

A single two-note chord running continuously

Troubadours

Noble Poet-composers and performers of court songs

Strophic

Different words but the same general melody

Estampies

One line pieces in triple meter where similar musical phrases are repeated many times in varied forms

Organum

A Traditional plainchant with another melody in counterpoint being sung simultaneously

Motet

A sacred vocal composition

Madrigal

The main secular vocal genre of the Renaissance

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